Geological Survey Department (GSD)
Mininstry of Lands, Forestry and Mines
No.6,7th Avenue, Accra, P.O. Box M 80
Phone: +233-21-679236/679237/679239
Fax: +233-21-679238

Ghana's Mining Portal

Chamber of Mines

CIA Factbook

Source: CIA Factbook

Legend and ore deposit name

Ghana can be subdivided geologically into three major units:
  • Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Birrimian Supergroup predominate in the southwestern and northwestern parts of the country;
  • Gneisses and supracrustal rocks of mostly Neoproterozoic age occur in the southeast and east of the country and flat-lying shelf/marine sediments of latest Proterozoic to Paleozoic age, dominated by the Voltaian Supergroup, are found in the central and northeastern part of the country; and
  • Cenozoic sediments occur in a thin strip along the SE coast.
 Further geological information can be obtained from:
  • Geological Survey of Ghana,  6  7th Avenue, PO Box M80, Accra; Phone: +233 21 228 079 / 228 093 / 224 676, Fax: +233-21 224 676 / 228 063,; and
  • Mines Department, Ministry of Mines, 9 Switchback Road Residential Area, P.O. Box M248, Cantonments, Accra. +233 217 7536, Fax+233 31 24 344,,
The majority of the data at the Geological Survey of Ghana is available in paper format, including maps, reports and other documents. GSD has in digital format a generalised National Geological Map at 1:1,000,000 scale and 83 detailed old geological maps at 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 scales. GSD also has a GIS database to store information on drill holes, including exploration and water, geochemical exploration data, airborne geophysical sections and related datasets, and mineral deposits within Ghana. Additionally mineral resources data and geochemical data is available as paper maps, reports and other documents, some of the maps have been digitised. Data is not available on the web. Metadata is stored in a database and the capture of geodata is ongoing through the AEGOS project.
The Chamber of Mines is a custodian of historical data, and the Minerals Commission deals with mineral licenses granting of mineral concessions and mining leases.


Ghana remains one of the world's top gold producers (10th with an estimated 3.4% of output) and on the African continent is second only to South Africa accounting for 17.5 per cent of total output. Gold production decreased by 3.7 per cent in 2008 from its peak in 2007. Ghana is also the sixth largest producer of silver, a by-product of the gold production that registered the same percentage decrease in 2008. Ghana was Africa’s third largest producer of manganese (9.53%) and bauxite (2.7%) and fourth largest for primary aluminium (1.42%). Ghana is a significant diamond producer and was ranked eighth in Africa accounting for 0.62 per cent of total output. Gem quality diamonds comprise about 80 per cent of the yield. In 2008 diamond production decreased by 28.7 per cent and represents an overall drop of 43.9 per cent from its peak output in 2005. The country is the fifth largest producer of salt in Africa accounting for 5.1 per cent of the continent’s output.

  • Ghana Bauxite Company Ltd (Alcan-8O%) mines at Awaso in the Birim Valley at a rate of 1 million t per year.
  • Alcoa Inc is the Ghana Government's chosen partner for the VALCO Integrated Aluminium Project.


Ghanaian gem exports have risen in recent years from 626,000 carats in 2000 to about one million in 2005, a rise that has been driven, local authorities say, by higher diamonds prices. About 80% of Ghana's diamond production comes from small scale miners. With little data available on their output, it is difficult to compare domestic production with export data. About 490 local buyers have been registered and local miners - believed to number as many as 10,000 - are currently being registered.
  • Ghana Consolidated Diamonds Ltd’s Akwatia diamond mine is located about half way between Accra and Kumasi and is the only formal operating diamond mine in Ghana.
  • The majority of diamonds is recovered by artisanal miners from alluvial and raised terrace gravel workings in the Birim Valley.

Gold Home

The Proterozoic rocks that comprise most of the West African craton and host the major gold mineralization in Ghana are subdivided into metasedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Tarkwaian and Birimian sequences.

The Birimian is composed largely of phyllites, schists, greywackes volcanoclastics, and metavolcanic rocks (including lavas, pyroclastics, and some finer-grained metasedimentary rocks). Unconformably overlying the Birimian are the continental clastics of the Tarkwaian sequence. These clastics were derived from the weathering of Birimian rocks and granitic intrusions found within the Birimian.

The area is dominated by a major northeast-southwest trending structural fault zone referred to as the Ashanti Trend, which hosts the Prestea, Bogoso, Obuasi and Konongo gold deposits, among others. Parallel to the Ashanti Trend is the Akropong trend, which hosts the Ayanfuri deposit. The Akropong Trend is about 15 km west of the Ashanti Trend in the Bogoso region, and gradually converges with it, coalescing at Obuasi and forming the basis for the world class Obuasi deposit, owned and operated by AngloGold Ashanti Ltd.

Gold operations in the Tarkwaian sequence include the Teberebie, Abosso, Tarkwa and Iduapriem mines.

  • AngloGold Ashanti (NYSE:AU; JSE:ANG) has three gold mines in Ghana, Iduapriem (open-pit), Obuasi (which comprises both surface and underground operations) and Bibiani (open-pit), producing 680 000 oz attributable gold in 2005. (Bibiani was subsequently sold to Central African Gold)
  • Golden Star Resources Ltd ( US, AMEX:GSS; TSX:GSC, also active in Sierra Leone and Côte d'Ivoire) operates the Bogoso/Prestea open-pit mine which has measured and indicated reserves of 20,8 million t at a grade of 2,18 g/t Au or 2,48 million oz gold and is expected to produce betweeen 260 000 and 290 000 oz in 2007. In March, 2007,the company announced the commencement of mining on its Pampe gold project. The Pampe project is a satellite deposit on the Akropong Trend, west of Bogoso, where they have been exploring for a number of years and have identified a 219,500 oz mineral reserve, which was included in the year-end 2006 mineral reserve estimate for Bogoso/Prestea. Golden Star is also developing the Wassa deposit with proven and probable reserves of 21,9 million t at a grade of 1,34 g/t Au or 940 000 oz gold. In May, 2007, the company announced the development of the Hwini-Butre and Benso gold project, as a satellite source of feed for the Wassa gold mine and which is expected to have a significant impact on Wassa, resulting in an increase in processed grade, production profile and life for the combined operation as well as an improvement in the average cash operating cost per oz. Golden Star announced in January, 2008, an updated resource model for the Bondaye and Tuapim deposits located in the Prestea South area of the Bogoso/Prestea concession approximately 20 kilometers south of the Bogoso processing plants. New drill results and the application of an amended resource model yielded a total of 525,000 oz of gold in the Mineral Indicated Resource category. This corresponds to a net increase of 409,000 oz of gold in unconstrained Indicated Mineral Resources.
  • Newmont Mining Corporation (US, NYSE: NEM) is developing both the Ahafo and Akyem open-pit projects. In the Ahafo area, 11 orebodies have been identified. Newmont purchased both the Ahafo and the Akyem projects as part of their Normandy Mining acquisition in February of 2002. Reserves have grown from a combined 3,3 million oz in 2002 to 20,3 million oz at year end 2006.
    The Ahafo mine poured its first gold on July 18, 2006 and commenced commercial production in August 2006. Ahafo sold 202,000 ounces of gold in 2006 and is expected to produce between 410,000 and 450,000 in 2007 as the mine enters its first full year of production. Revenue from the mine is expected to reach $250 million in 2007 based on a gold price of at least $600 per ounce. Ahafo has a 25-year life span.
  • Adamus Resources Ltd (Australian) is exploring the Salman and Anwia deposits, with a combined measured , indicated and inferred resource of 22 million t at 2,1 g/t Au or 1,5 million oz gold ( 1,0 g/t Au cut-off). Adamus Resources announced further exploration success at its Ghana gold project in October, 2007, with positive results from drilling at its Avrebo prospect revealing high grade gold mineralisation at shallow depths. The company's Southern Ashanti project has a resource of 17-million tons at 2,2 g/t for 1,2-million ounces of measured and indicated, and 6,3-million tons at 1,9 g/t for 390 000 oz inferred.
  • Red Back Mining Inc (Canadian, RBI.TO, RBIFF.PK) operates the Chirano mine with proven and probable reserves of 17,8 million tonnes grading 1.9 g/t Au or approximately 1,09 million oz contained gold. Gold production is expected to average 123 000 oz gold per year over an initial 8,5 year mine life. The Chirano Project is within the Bibiani gold belt along strike from Ashanti Goldfields' Bibiani gold mine. The Company has additional exploration projects and significant landholdings in Ghana both in proximity and along strike from Chirano and elsewhere in Ghana.
  • Endeavour Mining operates the Nzema Gold Mine, located in south-western Ghana, approximately 280km west of Ghana's capital city, Accra. Nzema began full scale production in April 2011 and produced 109,447 ounces during 2012. The Nzema mine consists of open pit contractor mining from a chain of shallow oxide pits along the Salman trend plus the Adamus pits 8km west of the plant. Ore is processed at the 1.6 Mtpa to 2.1 Mtpa plant (depending on ore type) and gold is recovered through a standard gravity-CIL process. The processing plant is connected to the national power grid. Exploration is currently underway to explore additional oxide resources with the objective of increasing mine life.
  • Perseus Mining Ltd's lead project is the Edikan Gold Mine (EGM), formerly known as the Central Ashanti Gold Project (CAGP), in Ghana, where production started  in August 2011 and entered commercial production on 1 January 2012. EGM comprises a group of large gold deposits located in the Ashanti gold belt. Current Reserves at EGM stand at 3.4Moz with additional Measured and Indicated resources totalling 5.4Moz and Inferred resources at 1.71Moz. Part of EGM, the Bokitsi deposit has Indicated resources of 212,000oz and Inferred resources containing 89,000oz, while Measured and Indicated resources at Esuajah North deposit at EGM stand at 920,000oz. Located east of EGM, the Grumesa Project has 0.5Moz of Measured & Indicated Resources and 0.25Moz of Inferred Resources. First gold was produced at EGM on 21 August 2011, and Perseus achieved commercial production on 1 January 2012. Perseus produced nearly 200,000oz of gold during our first year of production at EGM.
  •  Crew Gold Corporation (UK, operates the Lefa mine in Guinea) has 4 prospecting licences in the Wa area, north-western Ghana, and is engaged in early stage exploration.
  • Glencar Mining plc is exploring the the Asheba concession covering 45 square kilometers in southwest Ghana, 20 kilometres south of the Tarkwa gold producing area. The Asheba concession has numerous gold prospects and old colonial mine workings most notably the deposits at Cheriaman-Asheba towards the southern end of the concession. Cheriaman was the site of a significant producing gold mine in the first quarter of the 20th century. There was also colonial era mining at Bankarayo, Saghissi and Korokoseh towards the northern end of the concession. The Asheba concession was originally held by Glencar as the Asheba-Kanyankaw concession in a 50:50 joint venture with Moydow Mines International Inc. (“Moydow”). The original Asheba-Kanyankaw concession was subdivided into the Asheba and Kanyankaw concessions, the former held by Glencar and the latter by Moydow. Each of Moydow and Glencar has a right to buy back into a minority equity interest in the other’s concession.
  • Pelangio Mines Inc (Canadian, TSX:PLG.TO) is doing early stage exploration on its Obuasi property consisting of four mining concessions covering more than 411 square kilometres. The Obuasi property is located on strike and adjacent to AngloGold Ashanti’s Obuasi gold mine.
  • Central African Gold plc (AIM:CAN) announced its acquisition of the Bibiani gold mine and related assets and liabilities, including a prospecting licence in Ghana from AngloGold Ashanti in December, 2006. The mine, located 250 km northwest of Accra, is situated in the Sefwi-Bibiani Greenstone Belt. Since its discovery in 1902, Bibiani has yielded almost four million oz of gold from both underground and openpit mining operations. The company intends to increase Bibiani’s resource base from its stated inventory gold, as at December 31, 2005, of 100 000 oz of ore reserve and 900 000 oz of mineral resource (JORC compliant) as stated in AngloGold Ashanti's audited 2005 accounts. The Bibiani main zone underground ore reserve estimate increased to 9,18-million tons, at a grade of 3,57 g/t for 1,05-million ounces, at a cut-off grade of 2 g/t , in September, 2007.
    The ore reserves have been estimated from within measured and indicated mineral resources totalling 13,32-million tons at 3,66 g/t for 1,57-million ounces at a cut-off grade of 2 g/t.
Bibiani gold mine and other major deposits
  • Noble Mineral Resources Limited (Australian) commenced production at the company’s flagship Bibiani Gold Project after the first gold pour in March 2012, ramping up to a stable production rate of +150,000 oz per annum. The Bibiani Project has a current JORC-compliant mineral inventory of 2.8Moz of resources, including 972,000oz of reserves, and a 3Mt pa Carbon-in-Leach (CIL) Gold Processing Facility. The Project has a 10-year mine life based on current mining parameters. An exploration program is also underway to add to the existing resource base at Bibiani, with recent drilling returning  high-grade results from near mine targets. In addition to the Bibiani Project, Noble holds the Cape Three Points, Brotet and Tumentu Gold Projects, both located within the southern extension of the Ashanti Gold Belt.
  • Midlands Minerals Corporation (Canadian, MEX.V, also active in Tanzania) is exploring the Kaniago and Sian Esaase properties in Ghana. Kaniago is located on the Asankrangwa Gold Belt, approximately 33 kilometres east-southeast of AngloGold's Bibiani mine. The indicated gold resource on Esaase totals 1,232,340 metric tonnes at an average gold grade of 2,24 g/t Au (cut) and 2,62 g/t Au (uncut). The resource was calculated using a 0,5 g/t Au cut-off.
  • Mwana Africa plc's Konongo property which was acquired in 2004 (70% interest through Owere Mines Ltd), covers 330 square kilometres located at the north eastern extent of the Ashanti gold belt in central Ghana. It covers an area that has been the site of mining activity since the 1930s, when underground mines exploited high-grade free milling gold within quartz veins at Obenamase. Total historic production before the closure of operations was 1,65 million oz at an average grade of 15,7 g/t. The indicated resource is 965,000 oz. A prospecting license, Kurofa, surrounding the Konongo lease was granted in June 2005. The Banka concession, acquired in 2004, lies 50 km to the south of the Konongo concession, adjacent to Newmont’s Akim deposit. The project vendors, Gulf Coast Resources Inc. are currently milling old 1930’s development stockpiles from the shaft 19 area near Banka village via a crushing and gravity circuit. Recoveries are variable, but appear to be better than 6,0 g/t Au. Mwana’s Ahanta project lies at the southern limit of the Ashanti gold belt. A joint venture was entered into in 2004 whereby Mwana can earn an 80% interest by staged exploration.
  • Azumah Resources Ltd (Australian, A6Z.BE) is exploring the Wa-Lawra Gold Project based on a single Reconnaissance License covering 2,177 km² which includes an inferred resource of 225,000 ounces of gold at the Kunche Main deposit that is open along strike and at depth. Azumah Ghana has applied for a Prospecting License over the area including the Kunche Main deposit. In December, 2007, Azumah Resources completed a 53-hole RC and 5-hole combined RC/Diamond Drilling programme for a total of 6,402.6 metres at its main 500,000-ounce Kunche gold resource and the newly defined Kunche East and Bepkong target areas within its 100%-owned Wa-Lawra Gold Project in north-west Ghana. Assay results from this drilling were expected to be available in late January 2008. Additional drilling will commence in early February 2008 at these and several new targets generated from continuing truck-mounted auger sampling campaigns.
  • Pan African Resources plc announced on June 28, 2007, that it had agreed to buy 90% of the rights to the Akrokerri exploration property in southern Ghana, situated near AngloGold Ashanti's Obuasi mine. Pan African Resources said it would pay £52,632 in cash and £720,000 in shares for the prospect. The company signed an agreement to acquire 90% of the Akrokerri Exploration Property, in southern Ghana, from Sems Exploration Services and Birim Goldfields. Birim continues to hold the remaining 10% interest in Akrokerri, but Pan African Resources has the right to acquire the interest from Birim once the project reaches the bankable feasibility stage.
    The idea is to extend the Obuasi openpit mine and then the Akrokerri mine, which has produced 70 000 oz at 28 g/t. Pan African Resources is currently busy with three-dimensional modelling of the projects and will start drilling in 2008.
  • Birim Goldfields Inc is exploring the following properties: The Bui Belt Properties. Birim was the first company to systematically explore the entire Bui Belt, recognizing its geological similarity to the Ashanti and Sefwi gold belts that host the world-class deposits of Ghana. Birim dominates the Bui Belt with 13 wholly owned properties and two additional properties under application. An extensive exploration program is underway; including drill testing multiple targets areas identified on many of the Bui Belt properties including the Chert Ridge Prospect and Tinga Far East Resource.The Sefwi Belt Properties. Birim owns the Bia Tano, Bando Ahenkro and Nkenkasu properties on the Sefwi Gold Belt and has an option to earn 100% of the Techimentia property, all within close proximity to Newmont's world class Ahafo Gold Mine. A total of 3.8 million oz of gold has been produced on the Sefwi Belt; at least 18.1 million oz/gold remain. Nkenkasu is being fast tracked for initial exploration, soil sampling and scout drilling. In August, 2007, the company announced that it had agreed to give Newmont an initial 49% stake in its Banda Ahenkro Property on the Sefwi Belt. Newmont will have the right to earn another 21% by spending US$1.5-million on exploration over four years, Birim said in a statement. Another 10% (up to 80%) can be achieved if Newmont elects to do a feasibility study on the property.The Government of Ghana retains a 10% free carried interest in all gold mining development projects in Ghana. Ashanti Belt Royalty Property. Birim sold the 125 sq. km. Dunkwa property on the Ashanti Gold Belt to Golden Star Resources for US$3.4 million and maintains a sliding scale royalty (NSR) currently equal to 3.5% on all production including the Mampon deposit (after the first 200,000 ounces). Production is scheduled to commence in 2008.
  • Volta Resources Inc has suspended work on the Bui Gold Project and Maluwe Gold Project pending resolution of an impasse created by the Ghanaian Environmental Protection Agency not renewing the required environmental permits for exploration because it deems that any potential mining might have an impact on the structural integrity of the Bui dam which is currently being constructed more than 25 kilometres from the closest Bui properties. Newmont Ghana continues to explore on the Newmont JV Project located on strike, south of the Ahafo Mine structure. The company also holds the Sefwi Gold Project, located on strike, north of the Ahafo Mine structure.
  • PMI Gold Corporation acquired three former gold producing mines in Ghana: Nkran, Abore and Adubiaso. These mines were previously operated as the Obotan Gold Mine by Resolute Amansie Limited, a subsidiary of Resolute Mining of Australia.
    Between 1997 and 2002, the Nkran pit at Obotan produced an average of 146,000 ounces of gold per year for a total of 590,000 ounces of gold at an average grade of 2.2 g/t. The Abore and Adubiaso pits located 12.5 km and 4.0 km northwest respectively of Nkran, together produced a further 140,000 ounces at similar grades.
    In late 2002, after five consecutive years of low gold prices, which averaged approximately US$300 per ounce, Resolute decided to close operations and to commence the site rehabilitation process.
    In 1997 a bankable feasibility study reported 38 million tonnes at 1.96 g/t for 2.823 million ounces of contained gold. Over the next six years 730,000 ounces of gold were recovered and the mine closed. PMI Gold believes there is an exploration target below the Nkran pit of one to two million ounces of gold grading from 3 to 6 g/t Au. This assumption is conceptual at this time, and it is uncertain if further exploration will result in the target being delineated as a mineral resource.
    PMI Gold announced on 17 September, 2007, that it would buy the Kubi gold project, in Ghana, from Nevsun Africa (Barbados), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Canadian gold firm Nevsun Resources. The Kubi project is located 20 km south of AngloGold Ashanti’s Obuasi mine, and was first developed by local artisanal miners in the 1920s. PMI Gold would acquire all the shares of Nevsun Resources (Ghana), a Barbados registered company that owned the Kubi project, for nine-million shares in the firm, and an additional $3-million. n 1988, the then BHP outlined strong gold anomalies near the old workings and completed a programme of ground geophysics and drilling. Nevsun Resources (Ghana) optioned the property from BHP in 1993, and has subsequently completed extensive exploration, and defined gold mineralisation in a near vertical, between 1 m and 15 m thick,gold, garnet, and sulfide rich horizon. Drilling has defined the mineralised zone over an 1 800 m long by up to 700 m deep block contained within a northeast trending shear zone at the contact between the Birimian and Tarkwaiian metasediments. In 1999, Nevsun Resources (Ghana) transferred the property to Ashanti, which, in return for cash and royalty payments to the company, mined from two small pits 58 696 oz of gold in 500 230 t of oxide ore grading 3,65 g/t gold, with the recovered grade 28% higher than Ashanti's modelled grade. In 2006, Ashanti started the mine reclamation and said that it was returning the property interests to Nevsun Resources (Ghana).
  • Etruscan Resources Inc is doing follow-up drilling on the Bole-Bolgatanga Gold Belt to ascertain the results of the sampling on historic trenches of the Bolgatanga Reconnaissance Licence, which gave intersections of 12 metres for 7.0 g/t, 10 metres for 5.0 g/t, eight metres for 5.7 g/t and 10 metres for 2.1 g/t
  • General Metals Corporation (OTCBB: GNMT) (FRANKFURT: GMQ) owns 150 sq. km. of mining concessions for gold, diamonds and base metals and planned to commence exploration activities in 2008.

  • Goldstone Resources Ltd's Homase/Akrokerri project is located near AngloGold Ashanti’s Obuasi mine within the well mineralised Ashanti Gold Belt in Ghana where more than seventy million ounces of gold have been discovered. The objective of exploration in the Homase/Akrokerri project area is to find extensions of the known ore body along strike and below the presently known gold resource. Other exploration targets in the project area, like the Akrokerri quartz vein and the Akrokerri granite, have also been targeted by GoldStone and yielded promising drill results. The JORC compliant gold resource for the Homase/Akrokerri project presently is 602,000 ounces at an average grade of 1.77 grams per tonne. Various options for early commercialisation of this project are presently considered. Goldstone has recently completed additional auger sampling over eight high-priority gold targets along or in close proximity to the company’s 602 000-ounce Homase / Akrokerri Project deposit in Ghana, revealing potential new zones of mineralisation. The geochemistry programme comprised 1 332 auger holes drilled to a maximum depth of 3 m. Following a comprehensive review of the results of the programme, focus will be directed towards two particular prospects: the 1 500 m-anomaly AK02 prospect, which lies immediately south west and along the strike of the Homase / Akrokerri deposit, and the 800 m-anomaly AK04 prospect, which may be an extension of the AK02 deposit. Drilling of these prospects indicated strongly anomalous results of gold values between 44 and 244 parts per billion of gold (0.044 – 0.244 parts per million). Of significance is the fact that both prospects are located over what is thought to be a major flexure of the structural zone hosting the Homaase / Arkokerri gold resource. he auger method used provided Goldstone’s geologists with samples of Bottom-of-Transported (BOT) material, significantly improving the chances of detecting buried gold deposits. The next phase of the project, before drilling can be implemented, entails sampling of the anomalies on a 100 x 25 m grid, providing Goldstone’s geologists with a sufficient data density to begin planning a drilling campaign. GoldStone currently holds a 65% interest in the Homase license, while Akrokerri is 100% GoldStone-owned.
  • Asanko Gold'flagship project is the fully financed, multi-million ounce Esaase Gold Project located in Ghana, West Africa. Through the acquisition of PMI in February 2014, Asanko has further strengthened its portfolio of assets in Ghana, which now include the Obotan Gold Project and the Diaso Regional Exploration Project. Asanko has merged the two projects, Esaase and Obotan, into one primary development asset called the Asanko Gold Mine Project, which is located on the Asankragua Gold Belt in Ghana. The Asanko Gold Mine Project has 7.5 million ounces of Measured and Indicated Resources, including 4.8 million ounces of Proven and Probable Reserves. The Company is targeting 200,000 ounces of gold production from the Asanko Gold Mine in Q1 2016. 

  • Castle Minerals Ltd (ASX:CDT) reported in July 2012 a maiden resource of 14.4 million tonnes at 7.2% graphitic carbon - or 1.03 million tonnes of contained graphite at their Kambale project. Metallurgical test work returned results with coarse flake sizings. The graphite outcrops at the ground surface and 90% of the deposit lies at depths of less than 100 metres. Drilling tested only the first 1km of strike with extensions and the eastern zone at Kambale still be to drilled. Managing director Mike Ivey said the company drilled its first hole in March and regarded as an achievement bringing in a resource just four months later. Only 20 per cent of the graphic schist horizon had been tested, he said.

  • Diversified miner Cardero Resource Corporation  on 11 January 2013 announced a maiden resource for its Sheini Hills iron project in north-east Ghana, estimating the project to contain 1.3-billion tons of ore grading 33.8% iron. The Canadian National Instrument 34-101-compliant resource estimate, calculated by consulting engineers SRK Consulting, included average grades of 6% aluminium oxide, 37.3% silicon dioxide and 0.27% phosphorus at a 15% cut-off grade, all of which falls within a Whittle optimisation pit with a global strip ratio of 0.93. Iron mineralisation at Sheini occurs as primary ironstone in banded and granular types with local hardcap development and as detrital iron deposits, located on plains, next to the ironstone deposits. The company said Phase I drilling defined an inferred mineral resource over a strike length of about 9 km. Airborne geophysical surveys carried out during 2012 defined anomalies over an additional strike length of about 24 km and these anomalies were confirmed with iron mineralisation by reconnaissance mapping. Drill targets over this trend will require about 18 000 m of diamond drilling to be tested.

  • Consolidated Minerals, through its wholly owned subsidiaries, owns 90% of Ghana Manganese Company Limited (GMC). The remaining 10% is owned by the Government of Ghana. GMC owns and operates the Nsuta manganese mine in the western region of Ghana. GMC holds a mining concession for manganese over an area of 175 square kilometres in and around Nsuta in the Western Region of Ghana, less than 3% of which has been mined to date. GMC ore is one of the highest manganese-to-iron ratio ores in the market (Mn:Fe ~31) and is low in phosphorous, alumina and other heavy metal impurities, making it well-suited for both alloy and manganese metal production. Production in 2010 was 1.5Mt @ 28% Mn. The mine is located close to the major port of Takoradi, which is approximately 63km by rail or 92km by road. At Takoradi, GMC owns and operates its own ship loading infrastructure.

Oil and Natural Gas

Proven reserves

Oil: 666mmbbls

Gas: 0.80Tcf

The national oil company is Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC)
The key players are
Kosmos Energy
Sahara Oil
Tap Oil
Tullow Oil
Highlights in 2014
• Ghana is one of the top 10 fastest growing economies in the world and the
fastest growing economy in Africa.
• Ghana is making strides to establish itself as an important gateway to the
West African market.
• The Ghanaian Government aims to double oil production to 250 000bbl/d by
Recent developments
• The Government expects some growth for the industry sector in the medium term, and this is predicated on the anticipated debut production of gas in 2014.
• When gas from the Atuabo gas processing plant starts flowing in 2014 it will deliver relief to the present power crisis by minimising the volume and cost of crude oil the country imports to power its thermal plants.
• The Government of Ghana has signed a memorandum of understanding under which it will begin discussions to create a regional gas company with Côte d’Ivoire and Equatorial Guinea.
• The main focus for the upstream petroleum subsector in 2014 will be to attain peak oil production of 120 000bbl/d in the Jubilee field.
• Hess has made seven discoveries offshore Ghana, the latest announced in February 2013, and since then has been working towards Government approval on its appraisal programme.
• The Tullow-led consortium’s deepwater Tweneboa/Enyera/Ntomme (TEN) project is on track for first oil in 2016. Production will then ramp up to 80 000 bbl/d. It is expected that in 2014 USD1.4 billion will be spent on this project.

Click HERE for an overview
Takoradi: Ghana’s Oil City - Nikki Jones 

The Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) was established in 1983 as a body corporate to undertake the “exploration, development, production and disposal of petroleum”. GNPC began to operate in 1985.
  • Oil production: 7,477 bbl/day (2004 est.)
  • Oil proved reserves: 8.255 million bbl (1 January 2002)
  • Natural gas proved reserves: 23.79 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
  • In 2002, Oklahoma-based Devon Energy and Canadian independent EnCana Corporation entered into an agreement with the GNPC to explore for hydrocarbons offshore of southeastern Ghana in the Keta Basin. The companies are currently analyzing seismic data on the Keta Block. Devon has been active in Ghana since 1997 when it acquired the Keta concession.
  • Houston-based Vanco Energy Company also signed an exploration agreement with the Ghanaian government in August 2002. In May 2005, Vanco Energy completed 3D seismic research on its Cape Three Points Deepwater Block, and the company planned to drill its first exploration well on the block in 2006.
  • In 2005, Saltpond Offshore Producing Ltd (SOPL), which is owned by the U.S.-registered Lushann-Eternit (60 percent) and the state-owned Ghana National Petroleum Company (GNPC) (40 percent), signed a $5 million redevelopment project that will restart six wells on the Saltpond oil and natural gas field. SOPL hopes the additional wells will increase production from the current 500 bbl/d to 1,500 bbl/d. The former operator of Saltpond field, Agripetco, had shut the field down in 1985 due to decreasing output.
  • Scottish-based Dana Petroleum is currently analyzing exploration targets in the deepwater section of its West Tano Block. The company previously drilled two successful test wells, WT-1X and WT-2X on Tano field, and made estimates that the field contained oil reserves of 200 million barrels. However, Dana Petroleum indicated that only a small amount of the oil would be recoverable due to geological reasons. Dana Petroleum operates the block with 90 percent interest and is joined with GNPC (10 percent).
  • Dallas-based, Kosmos Energy signed a seven-year oil exploration agreement with Ghana. Kosmos will search for oil in the Tano Basin, adjacent to Vanco Energy’s Cape Three Points Deepwater Block. Kosmos is operator of the West Cape Three Points license with 86.5 percent interest and is joined with GNPC (10 percent) and E.O. Group - a Ghanaian oil and gas company- (3.5 percent).
  • Tullow Oil was awarded operating interests in June 2006 in two offshore licences in Ghana, Shallow Water Tano and Deepwater Tano. At the same time Tullow concluded a farm-in agreement on a third offshore licence thereby acquiring a 22.9% interest in the adjacent West Cape Three Points block. The Shallow Water Tano block contains three undeveloped oil and gas fields and Tullow's initial objective is to evaluate the potential to commercialise one or more of these accumulations. The other two blocks offer significant exploration potential in both the Albian and Upper Cretaceous intervals. The three licences lie in the greater Ivorian Basin and are on trend with the Espoir oil and gas field in neighbouring Côte d'Ivoire in which Tullow holds a 21.33% interest. More than a year (January 2012) after Ghana pumped its first commercial crude oil, production is yet to reach its capacity of 120,000 barrels per day (bpd). Tullow Oil, operator of Ghana’s offshore Jubilee Field, recently said in a statement that it produced an average of 66,000 bpd in 2011. The company expects production to average between 70,000 to 90,000 bpd in 2012, suggesting it will only hit peak capacity in 2013. It was earlier reported that Tullow and its partners also plan to produce crude from the Enyenra and Tweneboa oil fields off Ghana’s Atlantic coast. The first oil from these fields could be pumped by 2015. According to Renaissance Capital, “the introduction of crude oil as an export in 2011 was positive for Ghana’s external sector. Crude oil usurped cocoa and became Ghana’s second-biggest merchandise export, after gold, generating $1.97bn in export earnings in [the first nine months of 2011]. Notably, this performance was even before oil production reached its capacity of 120,000 bpd.” Standard Bank says Ghana’s real GDP grew by 23% in the first three months of 2011, compared to the same period the previous year. GDP growth in the second quarter was 16%, suggesting Ghana was the world’s fastest growing economy in the first half of 2011. Oil production accounted for much of this growth.

Source: Tullow Oil

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