Ministry of Mines & Energy
Private Bag 13297 Windhoek
Namibia Diamond Act
Namibia Petroleum Act 1991
Namibia Petroleum Laws Amendment Act 1998
Chamber of Mines
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|Year||Production||Unit of Measure||% Change|
|2003||16175||Metric tons||-10.20 %|
|2004||11174||Metric tons||-30.92 %|
|2005||10900||Metric tons||-2.45 %|
|2006||6262||Metric tons||-42.55 %|
|2007||8500||Metric tons||35.74 %|
|2008||8300||Metric tons||-2.35 %|
- Weatherly International plc operates the Tsumeb West, Tschudi, Otjihase and Matchless mines as well as the Tsumeb custom smelter. The company has a current resource base of 690,000 tonnes of contained copper (JORC) and is targeting 20,000 tonnes of copper on an annualised basis in 2008 from its own mining operations.
WINDHOEK – Umbrella union body, the National Union of Namibian Workers, is set for ownership in Weatherly’s copper mining operations, after Mineworkers Union of Namibia abandoned talks less than six months into negotiations.
- Kombat Copper Inc. holds an 80% interest in five Mining Licenses and five Exclusive Prospecting Licenses ("EPLs") in the Otavi Mountainlands. The mining licenses contain three past-producing mines (Kombat, Gross Otavi, and Harasib) and extensive mining infrastructure including an 800m exploration and production shaft sunk by Murray & Roberts at a cost of $30 Million USD. The shaft has a 90,000 tonne per month hoisting capacity and was first opened in 2006. Among the three past-producing mines is the flagship Kombat Mine, which opened in 1962 and historically produced approximately 8.7 million tonnes of ore grading an average of 3.3% Cu. Other significant minerals present include Silver, Lead, and Zinc. The Company also holds an 80% interest in five Exclusive Prospecting Licenses ("EPL's") covering an area of 1,550 sq.km within the mineral-rich Otavi Mountainlands. The Company has developed a series of priority exploration targets, which it believes have significant potential due to their geological characteristics and/or their proximity to Tsumeb and the Tschudi Copper Project recently permitted and financed by Weatherly PLC.
- Sabre Resources Ltd focus on the exploration and development of the Otavi Mountain Land Base Metals project in northern Namibia. The two licence areas cover more than 800 km2 and contain over 60 known copper, lead, zinc & vanadium occurrences. Sabre's prospect areas range from grassroots geochemical targets through to resource delineation at the Guchab mining centre and a move to feasibility on the zinc-lead deposits on the Pavian and Hoek Trends.
The Guchab Mining Centre (‘GMC’ or ‘Guchab’) lies 10 km to the east of the Kombat copper mine and was discovered in the early 1900s. The mining centre was worked as a series of open pits, box cuts and underground adits targeting near-surface, high-grade weathered copper sulphide & carbonate mineralisation, at more than 10% copper. These ores were later hand-sorted to create an exportable ore grading more than 33% copper. Mining ceased in 1925 following a collapse in the copper price, with only sporadic mining and exploration in the 1950s and 1970s due to ‘spikes’ in the price of copper. Ironically, Guchab actually produced more (and at a higher grade) ore than the Kombat mine in the early 1900s. A concerted exploration effort was made at Kombat from the 1950s onward due largely to ease of access. Kombat sits on the flats at the base of the mountains, whereas Guchab sits on the mountainside, which has left Guchab untouched by modern exploration. Sabre began exploration of the GMC after acquiring the property in June 2012. Initial targeting and evaluation showed that the copper mineralisation at Guchab extended over more than 4 km of strike, with values of up to 1% copper in soil samples and over 10% copper in surface samples. Initial channel sampling across the GMC yielded a number of highly encouraging results, including:
GCTR0002 16 metres @ 10.16% Copper & 64.00 gpt Silver
GCTR0023 25 metres @ 6.70% Copper & 59.00 gpt Silver
Drilling in the Guchab Canyon, which takes in the area from Eastern Adits into the High Valley, commenced in July 2012, with outstanding results. Subsequent exploration shows the GMC to be the eastern extensions of the Kombat Mine Stratigraphy.
The Schlangental prospect is located on the western side of the Guchab Mining Centre (‘GMC’), on the flats of the Schlangental valley. The prospect was discovered by Sabre in the course of exploration of the GMC and is defined by a number of shallow open pits dating back to the early 1900s. The pits had been excavated to a depth of 3-4 metres, with recent channel sampling by Sabre returning results of:
SCCS0001 15 metres @ 4.21% Copper & 28.06 gpt Silver
SCCS0003 42 metres @ 3.58% Copper & 18.34 gpt Silver
A program of shallow percussion drilling has now been completed across the Schlangental valley. The drilling was designed to penetrate below the soil and sand cover across the prospect area and outline the mineralised halo surrounding the open pits, thereby allowing the effective targeting of a program of deeper RC and diamond drilling.
The Eisernhut prospect is located on the top of a mountain, over 1900 metres above sea level, with a commanding view of the Otavi Mountain Land. The prospect was discovered in the course of prospecting and mining through the GMC in the 1900s. The prospect was located by Sabre in late 2012 in the course of mapping of the area. Subsequent detailed mapping and sampling of the prospect discovered a number of old pits and shafts, where high grade ore had been extracted over more than 30 metres of elevation down the mountainside. The mineralisation at Eisernenhut appears to be hosted by a breccia pipe and takes the form of a ‘quartz-malachite-chalcocite stock work’ that is overlain by an iron–rich, silica gossan at surface.
Rodgerberg is located to the east of the Guchab Canyon, on the eastern end of the GMC. Rodgerberg was worked in the 1920s with small parcels of ore, grading up to 36% copper, being extracted from the mine workings. The mine is famous for producing some of the best known examples of the copper mineral dioptase. Sabre’s exploration program at Rodgerberg has included mapping, rock chipping and channel sampling. Better results have included:
RUUG0001 3 metres @ 10.88% Copper & 473 gpt Silver
RUUG0003 13 metres @ 5.32% Copper & 192 gpt Silver
Rodgerberg is currently a ‘second tier target’ for Sabre in the GMC due to difficulty of access. Exploration will continue on the prospect as the work program advances across the Guchab area.
The Kombat East exploration area takes in the area from the Kombat Copper Mine in the west, through to the Rodgerberg mine in the east. This area covers more than 14 kilometres of highly prospective strike, interpreted to be the extensions of the Kombat Mine stratigraphy. Sabre’s focus remains the Guchab Mining Centre, but the Company is presently evaluating the area to the west of the GMC. Aside from the Guchab, Rodgerberg and Schlangental prospect areas, the Kombat East area holds a number of other targets including:
This geochemical copper target is also reinforced by the presence of old mine workings within the prospect area. Recent surface sampling has confirmed the target area and a program of channel sampling is being planned prior to drill testing later in the year.
The Nehlen target is located immediately to the east of the Kombat mine lease and was listed as a priority target for Goldfields when they held the area in the 1990s. It was not drill tested at that time due to access issues. However, these issues appear to have been overcome, and Sabre hopes to be drilling at Nehlen during the second half of 2013.
Schlenters is located to the northeast of Nehlen and is presently being investigated.
Kaskara was highlighted by conceptual targeting undertaken by Sabre and its consultants, in particular Douglas Haynes. Kaskara is a mineralised lithological & structural target, which appears to be similar to the nearby Tsumeb copper deposit (24.9 Mt @ 5.5% Cu 11.8% Pb & 171 gpt Ag), located less than 40 km to the north. Kaskara is a large mineralised system, including extensive surface mineralisation and significant mineralised intercepts in drilling. The deep IP target at Kaskara remains only partially tested and requires down hole geophysics, together with digital modelling, to help better target the source of the anomaly at depth prior to exploration recommencing on the prospect.
- Omitiomire is an unusual large low grade copper deposit in central Namibia. Craton Mining and Exploration (Pty) Ltd, a subsidiary of Sydney-based International Base Metals Limited, has drilled 250 holes to define a resource of 98 million tonnes at 0.51% Cu (500,000 tonnes contained copper) over an area of 2200 x 700 metres. Banded mafic rocks, which host the disseminated chalcocite, consist mainly of quartz, plagioclase, biotite and amphibole with minor chlorite, epidote, sphene, K-feldspar and magnetite. Low levels of gold and platinoids are associated with copper. Metallurgical testwork has shown excellent recoveries. Known extensions indicate that a target of + 1 million tonnes contained copper is achievable. Extensive geochemical anomalies suggest that Omitiomire could be part of a significant new copper district. In seeking analogies, there are similarities with the Lumwana copper-cobalt deposits (700 Mt at 0.7% Cu) in northwestern Zambia and perhaps with copper deposits in the Carajas district of northern Brazil. The Company has commenced a Definitive Feasibility Study (‘DFS’) on the Phase 1 oxide copper project. Johannesburg-based Basil Read Matomo has been awarded a contract to manage the DFS, which is planned for completion by September 2013. The Steinhausen Project, surrounding the Omitiomire Project, contains numerous known copper occurrences which have not been explored since the 1970s, as well as other targets to be tested. The Kalahari Copperbelt stretches discontinuously for 800 km from central Namibia to northern Botswana. The belt is of similar age to, and has similar styles of copper mineralisation as, the Central African Copperbelt of Zambia and the Congo (DRC). Craton holds three EPLs, totalling more than 1,700 km2 in the area. For the past several years, Craton has been focussing its exploration on the potential for copper in the lower part of the Damara Sequence. This was thought to be geologically analogous to the situation in the Zambian Copperbelt. Based on this exploration concept, Craton applied for, and was granted, EPLs 3372, 4296, 4297 and 4431, covering a large strike length (over 100 km) where lower Damara strata onlap onto the Kamanjab Inlier basement high. The Company has identified a small copper deposit at Tzamin in EPL 4431. A comprehensive exploration programme in EPL 3372 Kopermyn (now relinquished), involving geological mapping, geochemical and geophysical surveys, and drilling on targets, showed widespread but low grade copper mineralisation in the target rock units. The work gave no indication of the likely presence of a significant copper deposit. Accordingly, the potential for discovery within the lower Damara Sequence has been down-graded substantially.
- Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) (De Beers 50%, Government 50%) is currently producing less diamonds from onshore operations than that being produced by De Beers Marine Namibia (De Beers 70%, Nambeb 30%), which produced a total of 922 000 carats in 2005. Since 1908 more than 100 million carats have been produced from the dwindling and, in many instances, depleted reserves (see video)
- Diamond Fields International Ltd (Canadian), through its subsidiary Diamond Fields Namibia, owns a 100% interest in a mining license offshore (71,600 hectares). It has recovered more than 110,000 carats to date.
- Trans Hex has three shallow marine licenses in the Cape Fria area, four in the Toscanini (both north of Walvis Bay) and two south of Hollandsbird Island (north of Luderitz Bay). The company also has a resource of 30 million cubic metres of diamondiferous gravel at the Northbank project located in block 9, on the Orange River.
- Afri-Can Marine Minerals Corporation (Canadian) is exploring an offshore block covering an area of 994 sq. km, 105 km. north of Luderitz.
- Rusina Mining NL (Australian) investigated and abandoned the onshore area from Cape Fria northwards to the Angola border.
- Reefton Mining NL (Magna Mining) is exploring a 220 km onshore stretch from Möwe Bay to Cape Fria.
- Mount Burgess Mining NL has been exploring the Tsumkwe project, which is located 450 km northeast of Windhoek on the Botswana border and covers some 8,000 square kilometres held under 9 Exclusive Prospecting Licences seven of which are in joint venture with Kimberlite Resources (Pty) Ltd. Motivation for the project includes that it is located on the southern margin of the Congo-Angolan Craton, just south of Limpopo-Botswana dyke swarm, at a distance similar to the Orapa-Letlhakane kimberlite province in neighbouring Botswana, over a long-lived, stable basement high with Pre-Damaran basement dated >2,000 my, just south of the Sikereti kimberlites and south west of the Nxau-Nxau kimberlite field in Botswana; and in an area where 8 macrodiamonds, together with significant numbers of G9 and G10 garnets have been discovered, delineating discrete anomalies which the company believes have been sourced locally.
- high resolution magnetics, has resulted in the discovery of eight kimberlites. With the exception of two (which have less than 10 m of cover), the kimberlites are covered by approximately 50 m of overburden sediments of the Kalahari formation. Gravity profiles over the confirmed kimberlites suggest that these bodies range from 300 to 500 m in diameter.'s Kavango Project (24 Exclusive Prospecting Licenses encompassing 2,09 million hectares) in northeast Namibia, using
- Bonaparte Diamond Mines NL Namib Project:The Namib project is located offshore in the vicinity of Hollamsbird Island, some 250km north of the port of Luderitz on the coast of the Republic of Namibia. Active marine diamond mining operations occur off Luderitz and extend some 100 km further north of Hottentot Bay. The Namib Project comprises Exclusive Prospecting Licence (EPL) EPL3241 (Tsauchab Licence), and EPL3323 (Meob Licence) which are not contiguous but lie in close proximity. More recently the project area has been expanded by the inclusion of an EPL application, EPL 3533 (Tsauchab East Licence) which lies adjacent and inshore of the Tsauchab Licence. These tenements are held in Joint Venture with a Namibian Company, Tungeni Investments cc and represent “grassroots” projects off the Namibian coast.The Tsauchab and Tsauchab East leases lie within the submerged trajectory of the Tsauchab River palaeo channel and also within a south facing coastal embayment. Studies have shown that such features present favourable environments for diamond entrapment and improvement of diamond distribution. On a regional basis, there is evidence of alluvial diamond occurrence along the coastline east of the Meob and Tsauchab leases and reconnaissance seabed sampling over nearby leases by other explorers has identified marine diamond occurrences both to the north and south of the Tsauchab Lease.In the vicinity of the Tsauchab Lease, 5.09 carats have been recovered to the north of the area in 2002 and 15.69 carats have been recovered to the south of the area in 2003 where the largest stone recovered was 0.49carats.Luderitz Project:The Luderitz Project incorporates two Joint Operations Agreements (JOA) between Bonaparte's 100% owned Namibian subsidiary, Bonaparte Diamond Mines (Namibia) (Pty) Ltd (BDN) and Diamond Fields (Namibia) (Pty) Ltd (DFN), a 100% owned subsidiary of Diamond Fields International Ltd. The EPL1607b JOA gives Bonaparte exclusive rights to use the Bonaparte Seabed Sampler (BoSS) to explore for diamonds in Exclusive Prospecting Licence area EPL1607b for an initial period of 3 years in return for 50% interest in mining of resources identified by Bonaparte. The project area covers approximately 140 km2 and is located 55 km north northeast of Luderitz, in close proximity of mining licence areas held by Namibia's three leading marine diamond producers, Namdeb, Samicor and Diamond Fields. Previous exploration work conducted in the tenement by Diamond Fields during the late 1990's includes a complete geophysical survey from which a number of prospective targets have been identified as well as a limited amount of seabed sampling which confirmed the presence of diamonds in the property.The ML111 JOA allows Bonaparte to use the BoSS to carry out a program of resource development sampling in DFN's Mining Licence area ML111 in terms of this agreement. Bonaparte will have exclusive access for 6 months to two designated resource development areas (Diaz Prospect 1 and Diaz Prospect 2) covering a total area of approximately 1,600,000m2 in ML111. Bonaparte will carry out seabed sampling to define areas of Indicated Resource (in compliance with JORC guidelines) in which Bonaparte will then retain a 30% interest in any subsequent mining thereof by DFN.Bogenfels Project:The Bogenfels project lies approximately 100km north of the Orange River and comprises an area covering approximately 2,700 km2 off the coast of southern Namibia situated adjacent to the current producing marine mining licence areas held by Namdeb (De Beers/Namibian Government partnership). It comprises three licences; EPL3407, EPL3403 and EPL3404. The agreements are subject to approval by the Minister of Mines and Energy, Namibia. The Exclusive Prospecting Licence for EPL3407 (Mirror Mountain) was granted in November 2005 and applications for EPL's 3403 and 3404 are pending approval by the Namibian authorities. The project is held in Joint Venture with two Namibian companies, BV Investments cc and Mirror Mountain Mining cc for exploration and development of highly prospective marine diamonds, where Bonaparte retains an 80% interest.Boegoe Hills Project:The Boegoe Hills project comprises EPL3104 and covers an area of approximately 280 km2 which lies adjacent to the onshore mining licence area held by Namdeb, approximately 100km north of the mining settlement town of Oranjemund. The area is considered prospective for alluvial diamonds and lies approx 18 km to the east of Chamais Bay, where commercial diamond production has been carried periodically since the mid 1960's. The project is a JV between Bonaparte and Nassed Enterprises (Pty) Ltd, a Namibian Company, where Bonaparte can earn an interest of 75%. A geomorphological assessment of the data and a geological model for the evolution of the area shows several possible ancient river channel deposits (palaeochannels) as well as a possible ancient shoreline. These features present prospective targets for follow-up.
- Dahava Resources announced in January, 2008, that it had started limited production activities at its Lower Orange river property in Namibia. The company has obtained the right to prospect and mine on Block 4 of EPL 2610. Previous prospecting of the gravels indicated a grade of 1.3 to 1.78 carats per hundred tonnes
|Year||Production||Unit of Measure||% Change|
- AngloGold Ashanti (NYSE:AU; JSE:ANG) operates the open-pit Navachab mine which produced 81 000 oz of gold in 2005 from ore grading 2,05 g/t Au. Proved and probable ore reserves amounted to 10,1 million t at a grade of 1,67 g/t Au or 16,9 t of gold.
- TEAL Exploration & Mining Incorporated (Canadian, TSX:TL; JSE:TEL) is exploring the the Otjikoto deposit (see B2 Gold below) which has an inferred resource of 25,581 million t at a grade of 1,06 g/t Au or 873 000 oz of gold. In 2007, Teal Exploration & Mining agreed to sell an initial 10% of Avdale Namibia, the subsidiary of Teal holding its Otjikoto gold project, to Nambia’s EVI Mining, which has an option to buy a further 5% once a definitive feasibility study has been completed on the project. EVI will pay $5.5 million, for the intitial 10%, all of which will be used to advance the ongoing exploration drilling program and to upgrade and expand the inferred mineral resource at Otjikoto, which is estimated at 1,76 million ounces of gold, to higher confidence levels. Teal announced in November, 2007, that an independent person had supported the conversion of 460 000 oz of gold at its Namibian Otjikoto project into the indicated mineral resource category. The indicated resources were at a grade of 1,21 g/t. Total contained gold increased from 1,76-million oz to 1,78-million oz.
- B2Gold Corporation is a Vancouver based gold producer with three operating mines (two in Nicaragua and one in the Philippines) and a strong portfolio of development and exploration assets in Nicaragua, Colombia, Namibia and Uruguay. B2Gold is projecting gold production in 2013 of 360,000 – 380,000 ounces and approximately 400,000 ounces in 2014 from La Libertad, Limon and Masbate Mines. With the first full year of gold production from the Otjikoto project in Namibia scheduled for 2015, and increased production projected from La Libertad Mine, the Company is projecting 2015 gold production of approximately 540,000 ounces, based on current assumptions. Finally, with the successful completion of the Gramalote project (B2Gold 49% / AngloGold Ashanti Limited 51%) in Colombia, gold production could increase to approximately 750,000 ounces in 2017. Late in 2011, the Company completed the acquisition of a 92% interest in the Otjikoto project in Namibia, by completing a business combination with Auryx Gold whereby B2Gold acquired all of their shares in exchange for B2Gold shares. The Otjikoto gold project is located 300 km north of Namibia’s capital city of Windhoek. Construction commenced in the first quarter at the Otjikoto gold project.and is scheduled for completion in the fourth quarter of 2014 when mill production is expected to begin and the first gold production from the Otjikoto gold project is scheduled. The current mine plan is based on probable mineral reserves of 29.4 million tonnes at a grade of 1.42 g/t gold containing 1.341 million ounces of gold at a stripping ratio of 5.59:1 to be mined over an initial 12 year period. Based on the previously released Feasibility Study by the Company, the current average annual production for the first five years is estimated to be approximately 141,000 ounces of gold per year at an average operating cash cost of $524 per ounce and for the life of mine approximately 112,000 ounces of gold per year at an average operating cash cost of $689 per ounce. The Otjikoto gold project has excellent exploration potential. Subsequent to quarter end the Company announced additional positive drilling results on the new high grade Wolfshag zone near the current planned Otjikoto open pit. Of note, step-out diamond drill hole number WH12-345 returned 35.70 metres grading 4.82 g/t gold, including 15.30 metres grading 7.93 g/t gold, from the recently discovered Wolfshag zone. These positive drill results from the Wolfshag zone indicate the potential to outline additional resources that could lead to the expansion of production at the Otjikoto gold project. Three diamond drill rigs are currently active on the property, focused on the exploration and definition of the Wolfshag zone and parallel structures. An initial inferred resource estimate for the zone is expected by the fourth quarter of 2013. The Otjikoto exploration budget for 2013 is $8.0 million.
- In January 2014 the company announced that construction of the open pit Otjikoto Mine in Namibia remains on time and on budget. Construction is expected to be completed and production is scheduled to commence in the fourth quarter of 2014. In the first five years of its twelve year mine life, the Otjikoto Mine is expected to produce approximately 141,000 ounces of gold per year at an average cash operating cost of $524 per ounce. Pre-development cost estimates of $244 million and deferred stripping estimates of $33 million remain in line with original pre-feasibility study estimates. In addition to these costs, the Company had planned to lease finance mobile mining equipment and power plant costs in the amount of $60 million. However, as a result of Namibian regulations governing the securitization of certain assets, the Compa ny now plans to lease only the mobile mining fleet for a total of $41 million. The balance of the power plant costs has been funded from the Company’s existing cash flows and credit facilities. Leasing arrangements for the mining fleet were concluded in the fourth quarter of 2013 and are expected to be fully drawn and utilized by the end of 2014/early 2015 On November 5, 2013, the Company announced additional positive drilling results from the exploration program at the Otjikoto project. These drill results from the Wolfshag zone, adjacent to the planned Otjikoto pit, further indicate the potential to outline a higher grade resource that could lead to additional future expansion of production and an increase in the mine life. The Company plans to release the initial inferred resource estimate for the Wolfshag zone shortly. The Otjikoto 2014 exploration budget is $8 million. The program will focus on infill drilling the Wolfshag zone and further testing the potential to the south which remains open. Based on the positive drill results from the Wolfshag zone to date, the Company plans to expand the Otjikoto Mine in 2015, increasing ore throughput from 2.5 million tonnes per year to 3 million tonnes. The increased throughput will be achieved through the installation of a pebble crusher, additional leach tanks and mining equipment at a total cost of approximately $15 million. Once the expansion is completed at the end of 2015, annual gold production from the main Otjikoto pit would increase to approximately 170,000 ounces
- Helio Resource Corporation's Damara Gold Project consists of 3 licenses in Central Namibia, located between 20-100km to the east and northeast of, and in the same geological terrain as AngloGold Ashanti's Navachab mine and approximately 150km southwest of B2Gold's Otjikoto mine. Results from the Gold Kop target returned 50m @ 2.1g/t Au, 0.8% Cu and 14g/t Ag, incl. 7m @ 9.0g/t Au, 4.4% Cu, 73g/t Ag. Other highlights include 12m @ 6.8g/t Au, 14m @ 3.1g/t Au, 7m @ 3.6g/t Au, 4m @ 11.6g/t Au, 5m @ 6.0g/t Au, 6m @ 5.3g/t Au, and 1m@ 32.8g/t Au. Almost 10,000m of drilling on 100m-200m spaced lines confirms potential to locate a sizeable gold target at Gold Kop.
- Etruscan Resources Inc has licences covering a total of 8,970 km2 that were granted between November 2005 and June 2006, and will target the Kamanjab Project where field crews encountered a range of mineralized occurrences of gold and base metals and identified several zones of alteration that may be associated with IOCG type mineralization and the Witvlei Project where a number of historic copper occurrences are known.
- Teck Cominco Ltd (Canadian, NYSE:TCK; TSX:TCK-A) holds several exclusive prospecting licences in the central and northern parts of Namibia ans is involved in early stage exploration.
- Aflease Gold Ltd has a 100% interest in Etendeka Prospecting and Mining Company, a Namibian-based exploration company.
- Solvay SA operates the Okorosu Mine, an open pit fluorite mine located north of Otjiwarongo. It is part of an alkaline igneous-carbonatite ring dike complex where fluorite has replaced pegmatitic carbonatite. The Early-Cretaceous alkaline rocks/sövite complex intruded Late Precambrian Damara series (quartzites, marbles and biotite schists). The metasedimentary rocks have been fenitized in the vicinity of the intrusion. Fluorite also replaces host-rocks (marbles and biotite schists). REE-bearing minerals occur in beforsitic carbonatite dikes and carbonate-fluorite-bearing metasomatites. Their HREE content is significant.
- Deep Yellow Limited’s wholly-owned Namibian subsidiary, Reptile Uranium Namibia (RUN), discovered Shiyela in 2008 when an IOCGU target hole made a 340 metre magnetite rich intercept from surface. In 2010 a decision was taken made to drill test two magnetic anomalies (M62 and M63) at Shiyela. It was recognised that if the two anomalies proved to be significant magnetite deposits a mining operation at Shiyela would have a number of natural competitive advantages, namely:Infrastructure ~ 45 km by road from Walvis Bay port,10 km from the main C14 road that leads to Walvis Bay,10 km from the Kuiseb electricity substation which currently supplies Langer Heinrich Uranium Mine, Potential source of water in the Tubas channel to the north of the project area., Exploration upside associated with a regional aeromagnetic anomaly over a 20 km strike length. Potential to produce a high-quality concentrate grading above 68% iron (Fe). Initial metallurgical testwork on the 2008 drill core returned a high-grade magnetite concentrate assaying 70% Fe with very low silica content and no deleterious elements (Al2O3, P, S). Golder Associates Pty Ltd (Perth) completed a maiden JORC Mineral Resource estimate for Shiyela (ASX 6 December 2011) returning an Inferred Mineral Resource estimate of 78.7 Mt at 18.88% Fe at 10% DTR cut-off for the M62 and M63 magnetite deposits with an average DTR magnetite content of 16.17%. The Shiyela Iron Project, is the only known commercially viable iron deposit in the country. Once operational, the project will initially produce two million tonnes per annum of a high quality, coarse grained magnetite expected to attract a premium price in the export market. Depending on the Walvis Bay port capacity, ongoing exploration success and overall market economics, the project could ultimately be expanded to around 7.5 million tonnes per annum of magnetite product.
- CHINESE company Eastern China Non-Ferrous Metals Investment Holding (ECE) in 2012 discovered a deposit of 3 268 billion tonnes of iron ore at the Orumana village, some 30 kilometres south of Opuwo in the Kunene Region, and is planning to construct a multi-billion dollar industrial complex near Opuwo. ECE executive chairman Yi Shao said if everything goes well, the projects would contribute US$700 million (about N$6,2 billion) to Namibia's gross domestic product (GDP), and employ about 5 000 Namibians.
- Lodestone Namibia (Pty) Ltd's Dordabis Iron Ore Project is situated approximately 21km north of the town of Dordabis and 75km south of the Hosea Kutako International Airport in Namibia. The Dordabis Project holds the following Exclusive Prospecting Licences (EPLs); EPL 3112 (5,913 ha), EPL 3938 (7,274 ha), and EPL 4265 (25,287 ha). Lodestone began a third Phase of exploratory drilling activities in March 2013 which is scheduled to be completed in July 2013. This phase concentrates primarily on EPLs 3112 and 4265 on the Tsatsachas and Elizenhöhe farms. Minrom Namibia is currently conducting the third phase of drilling on the contiguous ore bodies and is conducting and overseeing the cataloguing and extraction of bulk samples. Metallurgical test work results indicated that the ore is feasible for the extraction of a high grade (67% Fe) hematite/magnetite (minor) blend. The geological block model indicated that the total resource tonnage for the north and the south ore body total 60mt at and average of 36.35% Fe utilising a 15% cut-off grade.
|Year||Production||Unit of Measure||% Change|
|2003||18782||Metric tons, lead content||NA|
|2004||14338||Metric tons, lead content||-23.66 %|
|2005||14320||Metric tons, lead content||-0.13 %|
|2006||11830||Metric tons, lead content||-17.39 %|
|2007||10543||Metric tons, lead content||-10.88 %|
|2008||14062||Metric tons, lead content||33.38 %|
|2009||14100||Metric tons, lead content||0.27 %|
- Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex
Karibib-Usakos Pegmatite District
- BlackFire Minerals Ltd (Australian) has acquired the exploration rights to the more important defunct lithium workings (Rubikon, Helikon) from Australian private company Sunrise Minerals Pty Ltd. The acquisition was facilitated via Black Fire purchasing Sunrise’s private Namibian subsidiary, Starting Right Investments Ninety Four (Pty) Ltd, which is the holder of Exclusive Prospecting Licences EPL 3750 and EPL 3751.
- Ansett, T.F., Krauss, H.U., Ober, J.A. and Schmidt, W.H., 1990: International Strategic Minerals Inventory Summary Report- Lithium: Circular, United States Geological Survey, 930-l.
- Baldwin, J.R., 1989: Replacement phenomena in tantalum minerals from rare- metal pegmatites in South Africa and Namibia, Mineralogical Magazine, 53, pp. 571- 581
- Bullen, W.D., 1998: Lithium in The Mineral Resources of South Africa (M.G.C. Wilson and C.R. Anhaeusser, eds): Handbook, Council for Geoscience, 16, pp. 441- 443.
- Diehl, M., 1992: Lithium, Beryllium and Cesium in The Mineral Resources of Namibia: First Edition, Geological Survey, 6.15
- Diehl, B.J.M. and Schneider, G.I.C., 1990: Geology and mineralisation of the Rubikon pegmatite, Namibia. Open file rep., geol. Surv. Namibia, pp.20.
- Galaxy, 2009: Lithium Market Outlook and Offtake Update. ASX Announcement/Media Release.
- Garrett, D.E., 2004: Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride: Their Deposits, Processing, Uses and Properties, Elsevier Ltd, London, UK, pp.476
- Natural gas proved reserves: 62.3 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
- HRT Participações em Petróleo S.A ("HRT") announced on Friday July 18, 2013 that the Murombe-1 well, the second offshore well in their exploratory drilling campaign has been concluded and is considered as a dry hole. This well was targeting the Murombe Prospect, located in Petroleum Exploration License 23 in the Walvis Basin. Although the well was dry and presence of poor reservoir in the main target, the results reconfirmed the presence of Aptian source rock in the oil window, which was also encountered during the drilling of the Wingat-1 well. The Murombe-1 exploration well was drilled to a total depth of 5,729 meters with the objective of penetrating two targets. The primary target, Murombe, a Barremian Age turbidite fan system and a secondary target, the Baobab, a shallower Santonian Age structure were both penetrated. The average porosity was 19% and no reservoir was encountered. Gil Holzman, Chief Executive Officer of Eco Atlantic commented: "The results of the Murombe-1 well announced by HRT late last week was disappointing for HRT from a commercial perspective, however they provide valuable information on the basin and the geological structures of the region. The well reconfirmed the evidence of source rock which complements that which was established by the Wingat-1 well drilled in May. In that well, samples of high quality light sweet crude were recovered, and a working petroleum system in the Walvis Basin was established." Earlier this month, Eco Atlantic was granted a one year extensions of its Exploration Phase of the Sharon and Guy licenses, extending the obligation period for both 3D seismic and drilling by a further 12 months into 2016. "Repsol recently announced the anticipated drilling of its Welwitschia-1 prospect in February 2014, which is contiguous to Eco Atlantic's Cooper Block in the Walvis Basin." Added Holzman, "HRT has also confirmed the imminent drilling of its third exploration well on the Moosehead prospect in the Orange Basin. Our Strategy is to continue with ongoing exploration during the extended term as approved by the Ministry, which comfortably allows the Company sufficient time to work obligations. Our team continues to gather information from ongoing exploration work which is allowing us to further define our prospects and targets. We and the E&P industry are well aware of the statistics of early dry holes drilled in the major fields around the world in order to bring them on line. We are being very conservative in our budgetary moves at this early stage and remain confident in the prospectivity of our offshore Namibia licenses."In the last years, Namibia has attracted the global oil industry attention due to the similarities of its offshore basins with two rich Brazilian basins: the Santos Basin, where the pre-salt layer discoveries can more than double the national reserves, and the Campos Basin, which is responsible for more than 80% of the national hydrocarbon production in the country. The Namibian coast is consisted of four continental sedimentary basins – Namibe, Walvis, Lüderitz and Orange. All of them are considered frontier areas, that is to say, little-explored areas on hydrocarbon accumulations, thus with potential for large oil and natural gas accumulations. The studies made by HRT`s specialists indicate that Namibia is a Brazil-conjugate margin in the South Atlantic since they share a common geological history. Through the acquisition of assets in the African country, the company became to be the major holder of offshore areas under concession, with 12 exploration blocks covering an extension of 68.800 km2, being the operator of 10 of them. In these assets, the consulting firm D&M estimates that the company has 6.9 billion BOE in net risked prospective resources. The largest 3D seismic survey ever performed in the West African coast has been conducted by HRT. Such survey covers approximately 10 thousand km² in prospects previously mapped in 2D seismic. The geological and geophysical investigations have been increasing the expectations concerning the Namibia`s potential. In seven prospects mapped by the company`s specialists, they estimate 28.5 billion BOE in P(10) unrisked prospective resources.
- Tullow Oil plc holds an operating interest in Productio n Licence 001 over the Kudu gas field, offshore Namibia. In July 2004 Tullow concluded a Joint Development Agreement for the development of the field as part of a gas-to-power project. The project involves the development of the Kudu gas field by Tullow and NAMCOR, and the piping of gas to shore for treatment and delivery to an 800MW power station to be developed and commercially operated by NamPower at Oranjemund. The produced electricity will be purchased by NamPower, for resale into the Namibian market, and by Eskom for the South African market. In April 2007, Tullow agreed to sell Itochu Corporation a 20% interest Production Licence 001. To earn the 20% interest, Itochu will pay 40% of the cost of two appraisal wells to investigate the significant upside potential of the Kudu field. In addition, under the terms of the transaction, Itochu will make further financial payments depending on the ultimate volume of reserves developed and will provide Tullow with beneficial development financing for the project.
- In March 2005, EnerGulf Resources Inc (Canada) signed an Memorandum of Understanding with the National Petroleum Corporation of Namibia (Namcor) to jointly explore and develop offshore Block 1171, which is located along the maritime border with Angola.
- In August 2005, BHP Billiton (Australian), Hunt Oil (U.S.), and Neptune Petroleum (U.K.) signed memoranda of understanding (MoUs) with Namibia’s Ministry for Mines and Energy. The MoUs allow the companies exploration rights for two years, with the option to renew the licenses at the end of that period.
- Paul Welch, CEO of oil exploration company Chariot Oil & Gas, said in 2011 that if substantial amounts of oil are found and Namibia continues with its current business-friendly policies, the country could be transformed into an economy like Norway. “It will be a true gem . . . I think Norway would be probably the best equivalent to what you would expect if Namibia maintains the current path that it is on,” Welch told How we made it in Africa during a telephonic interview. Through seismic surveys, Chariot has identified potential oil resources of 16.1 billion barrels within the areas in which it operates. These are, however, only potential reserves and until exploration wells are drilled nothing can be guaranteed. [Namibia] is very much a frontier exploration area that has tremendous potential, but until you have a significant discovery, it is still going to have a large amount of uncertainty associated with it,” Welch explained. He said that if the Namibian government’s estimates of total potential resources prove to be correct, it would put the country’s reserves on par with that of Nigeria. “The Ministry of Mines and Energy has done a study of offshore Namibia, and they have identified 44 billion barrels of potential off the coast – in areas that we have under lease and areas that other companies have under lease.” Chariot’s activities in Namibia since 2007 will hit a significant milestone at the end of this year, when the company plans to drill its first exploration well. Although Welch was reluctant to put a time frame on when actual full-scale oil production could begin, he said that it would probably take about three years from the first discovery. If Chariot’s first exploration well proves to be commercially viable, one could therefore expect production to come on stream in 2015. But why is Namibia’s oil potential only now being explored? “There are two reasons for that. One has to do with the history of Namibia as a nation and the second has to do with Namibia’s geology,” said Welch. Namibia gained full independence from South Africa in 1990; it was only then that oil and gas exploration started in earnest. Welch noted that most early exploration activities were, however, unsuccessful “because they were drilled in the wrong place”. At that stage it was also very costly for companies to drill in deep waters and they “didn’t have the kind of 3D seismic that we have today that allows us essentially to penetrate the rock and understand it much better than they could have in the early 1990s”. Earlier exploration focused on the shallower offshore areas, while according to Welch, the real potential lies in the deeper waters. Welch reckons that any significant oil discovery will have a “dramatic impact” on Namibia’s economy. The country is expected to benefit tremendously from royalties and taxes paid by oil companies as well as the employment opportunities that will be created. He compares Namibia’s current situation with that of Brazil around a decade ago. “You can think of Namibia today . . . to something similar to what you would have seen in Brazil say ten years ago, where you had some small inklings of potential, but people needed to go out and drill some wells before they could prove it. [Brazil] has gone from essentially an importing country, to an exporting country with regard to crude oil products. “The difference between Namibia and Brazil is that there are only 2.1 million people in Namibia, so every barrel discovered in Namibia is going to make a tremendous difference.”
Namibia Rare Earths files maiden Lofdal resource, confirms HREE
Namibia Rare Earths Inc had filed a maiden resource for its Lofdal rare earths elements project, confirming the presence of high levels of heavy rare-earth enrichment (HREE) in certain areas of the project. The National Instrument 43-101-compliant resource estimate, covering Area 4 of the project located in the north-west of Namibia, pointed to “exceptional” levels of HREE of between 75% and 93% HREE, depending on the cut-off grade, with corresponding total rare earth oxide grades (TREO) ranging from 0.27% to 1.26%. What distinguishes the project from many other juniors that have entered the market in response to China’s reduction of exports over the past four years – the country produces over 95% of the world’s rareearth’s supply – is its concentration of what are called heavy rare earths. “Given current rare-earth prices, over 90% of the value in this deposit lies in the four critical heavy rare
A calc-silicate hosted-scheelite skarn is known from an area north of Aus, Luderitz District. The scheelite mineralisation occurs discontinuously along the strike of the calcsilicates and covers an area of about 6.5 km2. Tungsten oxide concentrations range from a few g/t to about 20 000 g/t (Anonymous, 1981)
- Anonymous, 1980. Investigation into the Krantzberg Mine, results of initial exploration phase and mine operation January to June 1980. Unpubl. rep., Anglo American Corp. of S.A./Nord Mining and Exploration, Grant No. M46/3/163, 55 pp.
- Anonymous, 1981. Report on the geological exploration of grant area 582, Luderitz District, South West Africa. Unpubl. rep., Moly- Copper Mining and Exploration Co., Grant No. M 46/3/582, 8 pp
- .Badenhorst, F. 1987. Lithostratigraphy of the Damara Sequence in the Omaruru area of the northern Central Zone of the Damara Orogen and a proposed correlation across the Omaruru Lineament. Communs geol. Surv. S.W. Afr./Namibia, 3, 3-8.
- Bertram, N.G.E. (undated). Geological report in support of application for renewal of grant 935. Unpubl. rep., Gold Fields Prospecting Co., Gtant No. M46/3/935, 13 pp.
- Bertram, N.G.E. (undated). Report in support for renewal of grant 920. Unpubl. rep., Gold Fields of S.A., Grant No. M46/3/920, 4 pp
- .Beukes, G.J. 1973 ‘n Geologiese ondersoek van die gebied suid van Warmbad, Suidwes-Afrika, met spesiale verwysing na die metamorphmagmatiese assosiasies van die Voorkambriese gesteentes. Unpubl. D.Sc. thesis, Univ. Orange Free State, 333 pp.
- Blaine, J.L. 1975. Report on the the Okahandja Townlands grant. Unpubl. rep., Falconbridge Exploration Ltd, Grant No. M46/3/533, 4 pp.
- Burdett, B. G. 1983. Report on grant 1015 covering the farms Platrand 154, Border 155 and Komsberg 156, District Karasburg, South West Africa. Unpubl. rep., G. Swanson Enterprises, Grant No. M46/3/ 1015, 2 pp.
- Burg, G. 1942. Die nutzbaren Minerallagerstatten von Deutsch- Sudwestafrika. Mitt. der Forschungstelle fur kolonialen Bergbau, Bergakademie Freiberg, 2. W. de Gruyter, Berlin, 305 pp.
- Carr, R.G. 1972. Report on reconaissance geological mapping of the Karios prospecting grant. Unpubl. rep., Faconbridge Exploration Co., Grant No. M46/3/370, 5 pp.
- Comline S. R. 1983a. First interim report for prospecting grant 1271 situated in the District of Omaruru for the period 6th April 1982 to 30th November 1983. Unpubl. rep., B & O Mineral Exploration Co., Grant No. M46/3/1271, 10 pp.
- Comline, S.R. 1983b. First interim report for prospecting grant 1010. Unpubl. rep., B & OExploration Co., Grant No. M46/3/1010, 9 pp.
- Coxall, P.J. 1981a. Prospecting on a portion of Omaruru Townlands, final report. Unpubl. rep., B & O Mineral Exploration Co., Grant No. M46/3/967, 3 pp.
- Coxall, P.J. 1981b. Report on prospecting the Okombahe grant, Damaraland. Unpubl. rep.,B & O Mineral Exploration Co., Grant No. M46/3/886, 3 pp
- Frommurze, H.F, Gevers, T.W. and Rossouw, P.J.1942. The geology and mineral deposits of the Karibib area South West Africa. Expl. Sheet 79 (Karibib, SWA), geol. Surv. S. Africa., 172 pp.
- Gurich, G. 1890. Geologisch-mineralogische Mitteilungen aus Sudwest-Afrika. I. Mineralien aus dem deutschen Schutzgebiet in Sudwest-Afrika. Neues Jb. Miner. Geol. Pal„ont., 1, 103 117.
- Haughton, S.H., Frommurze, H.F., Gevers, T.W., Schwellnus, C.M. and Rossouw, P.J. 1939. The geology and mineral deposits of the Omaruru area South West Africa. Epl. Sheet 71 (Omaruru, SWA), geol. Surv. S. Afr., 151 pp.
- Holman, R.M., 1988. Final geological report,Ketelbank prospecting grant. Unpubl. rep., Rossing Uranium Ltd Expl. Dept, Grant No. M46/3/1524, 8 pp.
- Jeppe, J.F.B. 1952. The geology of an area along the Ugab River, west of Brandberg. Unpubl.Ph.D. thesis Univ. Witwatersrand, 97 pp.
- Kartun, K.G. 1979. The geology of the Tantalite Valley Mafic-ultramafic Complex and the Kumkum Metamorphic -igneous massif near Warmbad, South West Africa (Namibia). Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Cape Town, 461 pp.
- Louwrens, D. J. 1986. Final geological report on grant 1515. Unpubl. rep., Rossing Uranium Ltd, Grant No. M46/3/1515, 13 pp.
- Le Roux, D.L. 1981. Grant report on scheelite investigation (Ugab extension). Unpubl. rep.. Trekkopje Exploration and Mining Co., Grant No. M46/3/948, 23 pp.
- Marsh, A.M. 1980. Motivation for prospecting grant application, Okahandja District. Unpubl. rep., B & O Mineral Exploration Co., 2 pp.
- Miller, R.McG. 1980. Geology of a portion of central Damaraland, South West Africa/ Namibia. Mem. geol. Surv. S. Afr., S. W. Afr. Ser., 6, 78 pp.
- Pirajno, F., Petzel. V.F.W. and Jacob, R.E. 1987. Geology and alteration-mineralisation of the Brandberg West Sn-W deposit, Damara Orogen, South West Africa/Namibia. S. Afr. J. Geol, 9 (3), 256-269.
- Petzel, V.F.W. 1986. Vein and replacement type Sn and S-W mineralisation in the Southern Kaoko Zone, Damara Province, South West Africa/Namibia. Unpubl. MSc. thesis, Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown, 142 pp.
- Reuning, E. 1925. Die Natasmine in Sudwest Afrika, eine pegmatitisch-hydrothermale šbergangslagerstutte mit Scheelit, Molybdunglanz, Kupfererzen und Gold. Neues Jb. Miner. Geol. Palaont., 52(A), 192- 261.
- Scoon, R. 1987. Stratabound Scheelite Mineralization in the Omaruru Area, Northern Central Zone of the Damara Province. Unpubl. rep., geol. Surv. Namibia, 48 pp.
- Schlogl, H.U. 1984. The Geology of the Krantzberg tungsten deposit, Omaruru, South West Africa. Unpubl. M. Sc. thesis, Univ. of Stellenbosch, 121 pp.
- Schwellnus, C.M. 1940. The old Nakeis wolfram mine, Keetmanshoop District, South West Africa. Unpubl rep., geol. Surv. rep.
- Steven, N.M. 1987. Tungsten mineralisation at the Otjua prospect: A geological and geochemical investigation. Unpubl. M. Sc. thesis, Univ. of Cape Town, 152 pp.
Namibia: Mine Advised to Accept Chinese Offer
"Namibia's red hot uranium winners"
- Rio Tinto plc (NYSE:RTP;TSX:RIO, 69%) operates the Rössing Uranium mine. Proven reserves in 2005 of 3,222 t U at a grade of 0,032% U and probable reserves of 34,700 t U at a grade of 0,028% U. The management of Rössing uranium reportedly expects Namibia to produce 10 percent of the world's primary production of uranium by 2012 (see video). The compnany said in September, 2007, that it hoped to extend the life of the mine to 2021 and aimed to boost output by 12.5 percent to 4,500 tonnes in 2008. [more]
- Paladin Energy Ltd (Australian, TSX:PDN; ASX:PDN) commissioned the Langer Heinrich mine on 28 December 2006. It has measured and indicated reserves of 32, 2 million t at a grade of 0,07 %. ( 22,200 t U3O8). The envisaged production rate is 2,6 million pounds of uranium oxide per year, which could be increased to 3,7-million lbs. Cash costs at Langer Heinrich is expected at between $21/lb and $23/lb over the long run.
- UraMin Inc (Canadian, also active in Botswana,CAR, Chad and Mozambique) is developing the Trekkopje Project located in west-central Namibia about 65 km northeast of Swakopmund. Based on prior drilling, plus the company’s confirmation drilling, SRK Consulting has estimated an NI 43-101-qualified Measured and Indicated Mineral Resource of 18,4 million pounds of U3O8 (61 million tonnes at a grade of 0,014%) and an Inferred Mineral Resource of 139,2 million pounds U3O8 (502 million tonnes at a grade of 0.013%), both estimated using an 80-ppm cut-off grade. On 8 May, 2007, the company announced that an increase of 134% (63 million contained lbs U3O8 has been estimated by SRK Consulting (US), Inc. for the Trekkopje Project for the Measured and Indicated Mineral Resource, which now totals 335 million tonnes at an average grade of 0.015% U3O8 containing 50,074 tonnes U3O8 (110 Mlbs U3O8 using a cut-off grade of 0.010% U3O8). At the 100ppm cut-off the average grade of the Measured and Indicated resource has increased to 149 ppm which represents a 2% increase. The Trekkopje feasibility study remains on schedule for completion in the 3rd quarter of 2007 and production on stream for the 4th quarter of 2008. Biggest Uranium Mine (Source: Namibia Economist)
- Forsys Metals Corporation, through its wholly owned Namibian subsidiary, Westport Resources Namibia (Pty) Limited, is exploring the Valencia Uranium project. It has an inferred resource of 18 million t at a grade of 0,025% U3O8 ( 0,25 kg/t) or 9,9 million pounds of U3O8 (cut-off 0,20 kg/t U3O8). State-owned Korea Electric Power Corporation (Kepco) signed a US$307-million memorandum of agreement with Forsys Metals to develop the Valencia uranium property in November, 2007. Forsys said in February 2014 it had lifted the total Canadian National Instrument 43-101-compliant reserves of uranium oxide (U3O8) to 79-million pounds from 60.5-million pounds. The company had also lifted the average grade to 202 ppm, through using higher cut-off grades of 100 ppm for the Valencia pit and 160 ppm for the Namibplaas pit.
- Bannerman Resources Ltd (Australian) confirmed an interim inferred resource of 27 million lbs (12,200 t) U3O8 at its 100% owned Goanikontes Uranium Project in Namibia.This resource is contained within 55 million t at a grade of 219 ppm U3O8, however the resource also contains a higher grade core of 21 million t at 308 ppm U3O8.
- Extract Resources' (ASX:EXT) main asset is the Husab Uranium Project, located approximately 45km north-east of Namibia's main port - Walvis Bay. The project is strategically located within a 50km radius of several world class uranium deposits. Bordering Rio Tinto’s Rossing Mine to the north and 25km to the Langer Heinrich project to the east, the Husab Project covers an area of 637 km2 and contains several uranium prospects ranging from grass roots exploration through to advanced resource definition.Extract announced, in Jauary, 2008, a major new uranium discovery at their Rossing South exploration target which is part of their wholly owned Husab Uranium Project. Drill hole assay results hosted within uraniferous alaskite confirmed a major new uranium discovery beneath desert sands, about 7 kilometres south of the Rossing Uranium Mine.
- Kalahari Minerals plc (AIM:KAH) has a 41% share in four uranium projects: held through Kalahari’s 41% holding in Australian-based Extract Resources (ASX:EXT). Two of these projects lie between Rio Tinto’s (NYSE:RTP; LSE:RIO) Rössing mine, the world’s fifth largest uranium producer which has been in operation for over 30 years, and Paladin’s (ASX:PDN; TSX:PDN} Langer Heinrich mine
- .Deep Yellow Ltd's exploration in Namibia is carried out by Reptile Uranium Namibia (Pty) Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary. The company has 4 contiguous concessions to the south of the Langer Heinrich and Rössing uranium mines. The Tubas project is the most advanced with an inferred mineral resource of 77.3 million tonnes at 0.023% (238 ppm) U3O8 at a cut-off grade of 100 ppm U3O8 for 17,600 tonnes or 38.8 million pounds of contained U3O8.
- West Australian Metals (WME) is exploring the Marenica project to the north of Rössing mine. According to the the company's Leon Reisgys, Technical Director and Acting CEO, the resource (area), previously drilled by Gold Fields in the 1970's, contains around 18 million pounds of uranium.
- Xemplar Energy Corporation is exploring known and previously explored uranium occurrences at the Engo Valley, Cape Cross, Aus/Garub and Warmbad. See "Rio Tinto said to be eyeing big Namibian uranium find". An airborne radiometric survey south of Warmbad showed the existence of 14 uraniferous granite (alaskitic) bodies. These bodies cover a surface area of approximately 30 square kilometres. Surface sampling has shown (reported May 7, 2007) the bodies to be mineralised. An initial drilling program (reported February 4, 2008) has shown that at least two of these bodies extend to depth, in some cases in excess of 200 metres. The analysis of the drill samples from these holes has shown (reported February 4, 2008) that wide widths are mineralised. This sampling has also shown that portions of the bodies are not mineralised or have low grades, which is not unusual for these alaskitic occurrences.
- Erongo Energy Ltd (Australian) has a 90% interest in and is exploring two exclusive prospecting areas covering a total area of approximately 420 square kms north and south of the Erongo Complex.
- Pitchstone Exploration Ltd (Canadian) will explore at three properties owned by Manica Minerals Ltd. (Manica is a privately owned mineral exploration company operating in southern and east Africa under the control of Dr. John Gurney and Dr. Peter Hildebrand.) Pitchstone’s entrance follows the signing of a Letter Agreement with Manica, which will see it exploring for uranium at Nakop, Sandwich Bay and Kaoko – properties that are located in Namibia’s western deserts. At Nakop, Pitchstone will target its Proterozoic sediments. The Sandwich Bay has a Rössing deposit analogue, but is situated approximately 70 kilometres southwest of Rio Tinto’s Rössing Uranium Mine, the country’s oldest producing mine. Pitchstone looks forward to sediment hosted uranium deposits at Kaoko, which lies in an area of known uranium occurrence.
- West Africa Gold Exploration, Westport Resources, Galahad Gold, UraMin, Namura Mineral Resources, Xemplar Energy, Australian United Gold, Cheetah Minerals Exploitation, Corporate Resources Consultant, Etruscants Resources Namibia, the Chinese company Nam-China Minerals & Development, Namibia Mineral Mining Plants & Products, New Mining Company, Philco Twenty, Reptile Investment Four, Jaco Floris Smith, Deep Yellow Ltd and Nova Energy have been awarded prospecting rights for uranium.
Skorpion Zinc is a non-sulphide zinc deposit owned by Ambase Exploration (Namibia) (Pty) Ltd, which is located in the southern part of the Namib Desert, approximately 40 km north of the Orange River. The so-called Skorpion belt of zinc-lead copper-barite prospects is hosted by volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Gariep Complex, northwest of Rosh Pinah. The Skorpion zinc deposit represents an initial rift phase with crustal extension and strong vertical tectonics, associated with subaqueous, mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentation. It is a shallow subhorizontal body comprising secondary zinc silicate and carbonate minerals like smithsonite, hemimorphite, hydrozincite and sauconite.
Supergene ore-forming processes at Skorpion appear to involve wallrock-replacement as well as saprolitic accumulations and minor in-situ replacement. Mining is open cast-type and the unusual zinc-silicate and carbonate ore is treated by direct acid leach, solid liquid separation, a unique zinc solvent extraction and electro-winning to produce high-purity zinc on site at low cost. (Source: Geological Survey of Namibia)
- Exxaro mines the Rosh Pinah deposit, situated in south-western Namibia, 800 km south of Windhoek. Exxaro holds 89,5% in Rosh Pinah with Namibian empowerment groupings holding the balance. Negotiations are under way to divest of a further 39,5% to Namibian empowerment groupings. The mine produces 126,000 t per annum of zinc concentrates, fully sold to Exxaro’s zinc refinery. Exploration is under way to add to the remaining mineral resource of 7 million t (or a life of 6 years) at an average grade of 8,68% zinc and 2,25% lead. The mine has entered into an exploration agreement with Ambase Exploration (Namibia) (Pty) Limited (Anglo American) which will allow the two companies access to select areas under each other’s prospecting permits for exploration.
- Anglo American mined the Skorpion deposit and produced 150,000 tons of special high grade zinc per annum.It has estimated proven and probable reserves of 21,4 million t grading at 10,5% zinc. The Skorpion zinc mine and refinery is near Rosh Pinah, in southern Namibia and approximately 85 km north-east of Oranjemund and 25 km north-west of Rosh Pinah. In December 2010, Vedanta Resources Plc, the large metals producer controlled by Indian billionaire Anil Agarwal, completed its acquisition of the Skorpion zinc mine in Namibia from Anglo American Plc.
- A suggested theory for the origin and a brief description of some gypsum deposits of South West Africa
- Blauer schleifwuerdiger Jeremejewit aus SW-Afrika. Blue polishable jeremeyevite from South-West Africa
- Diamanten; Bruchstuecke der Ewigeit; Entstehung und Gewinnung. Diamonds; fragments of eternity; development and production
- Diamond harvest of the Namib surf; the story of CDM
- Fluid inclusions from the fluorite deposits associated with carbonatite at Amba Dongar, India, and Okorusu, South West Africa
- Gemstone news from southern Africa
- Geologie du diamant; deuxieme partie; Gisements de diamant d'Afrique. The geology of diamonds; 2nd part, Diamond deposits of Africa
- Osobennosti almazov pribrezhno-morskikh rossypey Yugo-Zapadnoy Afriki ispol'zovaniye ispok'zovaniye ikh dlya poiskov podobnykh mestorozhdeniy v Sovetskom Soyuze. Characteristics of diamonds from coastal-marine placers of South-West Africa and their utilization in the exploration of similar deposits in the Soviet Union
- Phosphate in sediments off southwestern Africa; Progress Reports for the Year 1972
- The marble deposits of South-West Africa
- A petrographic and mineragraphic study of the copper-bearing formations in the Witvlei area, South West Africa
- A petrographic and mineragraphic study of the copper-bearing formations in the Witvlei area, South West Africa
- A preliminary account of the Otjihase copper deposit, South West Africa
- Airborne geochemical prospecting; Geochemical exploration (International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, 3rd, Proc.)
- Base-metal mineralization in alkaline pyroclastics; the Regenstein Vent, South West Africa
- Bauxite deposits in the SADC Region
- Black Mountain surges forward
- Case histories from a geochemical exploration programme; Windhoek District, South West Africa
- Cupriferous metasedimentary pegmatites; Rocky Mountain Section 25th Annual Meeting
- Diamonds in the SADC Region
- Effect of fallout of windborne zinc, lead, copper and cadmium from a fuming kiln on soil geochemical prospecting at Berg Aukas, South West Africa
- Foreign uranium sources; status and developments; Executive conference on uranium fuel supply
- Geochemical exploration in southern Africa and Madagascar; Geochemical exploration (International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, 3rd, Proc.)
- Geochemical exploration in southern Africa and Madagascar; Third international geochemical exploration symposium; program and abstracts
- Geochemical reconnaissance study of the Haib River prospect, South-West Africa
- Granite genesis and associated mineralization in part of the central Damara Belt; Mineralization in metamorphic terranes
- Granitic uranium deposits
- Heavy mineral sand deposits in the SADC Region
- Kalahari; Die Manganerzvorkommen in der Kalahari. The manganese ores from Kalahari
- Les mines de fer mondiales et la préparation des minerais - Afrique
- New primary vanadium-, germanium-, gallium-, and tin-minerals from the Pb-Zn-Cu-deposit Tsumeb, South West Africa
- New prospective types of stratiform tungsten mineralization
- Ore-processing technology in the assessment of uranium supply
- Pan-African tectonism and the genesis of base metal sulfide deposits in the northern foreland of the Damara Orogen, Namibia.
- Possible variations on the calcrete-gypcrete uranium model
- Rhythmisch gebaenderter Gelpyrit mit Arsen- und Kupfergehalten aus der Erzlagerstaette Tsumeb, S.W.A.. Rhythmical banded arsenic- and copper-bearing "gelpyrite" from the Tsumeb ore deposit, South-West Africa
- Rossing uranium
- Seldsame aarde mineralisasie in die Namakwagordel. Rare earth mineralization in Namaqualand
- Some aspects of uranium paragenesis in the Nosib and the Damara supergroups
- Stratiform sulfide mineralization at Oamites copper mine, South West Africa
- Stratiform sulphide mineralization at Oamites copper mine, South West Africa
- Sulphur-isotope studies of some sulphide deposits in central South West Africa
- The application of airborne and ground geophysical techniques to the search for magnetite-quartzite associated base-metal deposits in Southern Africa; Geophysics and geochemistry in the search for metallic ores
- The distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability; based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)
- The environment of copper deposits in South-West Africa
- The geological setting of porphyry-type copper mineralization in the Haib River area, South West Africa
- The geology and geochemistry of calcrete/gypcrete uranium deposits in duricrust; Namib Desert, South West Africa
- The mineralization of the ensialic Damara orogenic belt; Mineralization in metamorphic terranes
- The Pb-Zn deposit of Rosh Pinah Mine, South West Africa
- The Roessing uranium deposit near Swakopmund, South West Africa; Uranium exploration geology
- The Roessing uranium deposit, South West Africa
- The role of geobotany, biogeochemistry and geochemistry in mineral exploration in South West Africa and Botswana; a case history
- The tin-bearing pegmatites of the Erongo area, South West Africa
- Three case histories from a geochemical exploration program; Windhoek District, South West Africa
- Tin mineralisation [discussion]
- Two different models for copper-lead-zinc mineralisation in southern Africa
- Uran-Prospektion vor Suedwestafrika. Uranium exploration in South-West Africa
- Uranium in plutonic rocks
- Varieties of granitic uranium deposits
- Wall rock alteration in the area of the "C" ore body, Rosh Pinah Mine, South West Africa/Namibia
- Where to prospect for uranium
- Beerman's All mining year book 1972
- Beerman's all mining year book, 1971
- Bergbauliche Ressourcen im suedlichen Afrika unter Beruecksichtigung der Resources Diplomacy in den internationalen Beziehungen und in ihrer Auswinkung auf Europa. Mineral reosurces in southern Africa from the view of resources diplomacy in international relations and in its consequences for Europe
- Der Diamantenbergbau in Suedafrika im Jahre 1972. The diamond mining industry of South Africa in 1972
- Exploration and sampling methods employed in the offshore diamond industry; Mining and petroleum geology
- Exploring the Diamond Coast
- Holding Back the Tide
- New thermoluminescence techniques for mineral exploration; Nuclear techniques and mineral resources 1977; proceedings of the International symposium on nuclear techniques in exploration, extraction and processing of mineral resources held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, 7-10 March 1977
- Ore Reserve Estimation and Depletion Planning for a Beach Diamond Deposit
- Report of the activities of the Geological Survey during 1967
- Statistical Valuation of Diamondiferous Deposits
- The geological environment of some diamond deposits off the coast of South West Africa; The geology of the east Atlantic continental margin; 1, General and economic papers
- The Mineral Industry of the Territory of South-West Africa
- The mineralization of the ensialic Damara orogenic belt
- The status of exploration geochemistry in southern Africa
- The use of ERTS imagery in problems of geology and mineral exploration in the Damara Geosyncline
- University of the Witwatersrand, Economic Geology Research Unit, fifth annual report, 1963
- Willemite, an uncommon gemstone
- Financing African mining developments; Mining activity survey
- Les mines de fer mondiales et la préparation des minerais - Afrique
- Dimension Stone in ACP Countries, n°1, Potential and projects in the Southern African Development Community (SADC)
- Namibian marine diamond mining
- Proterozoic anhydrite from a sediment-hosted hydrothermal vent site, Rosh Pinah District, Namibia