Mali

Direction Nationale de la Géologie et des Mines (DNGM)
Ministere des Mines
ZoneIndustrielle, BP 223,Bamako
Phone:   +223-221-5821
 Fax: +223-221-9111
contact@dngm.org


Source: CIA Factbook



Legend




Geology
Mali is underlain by two cratonic nuclei, extensions of the West African Craton and the Tuareg Shield, which were welded together during the Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogenic event. The West African Craton outcrops at the border with Senegal, in southern Mali as part of the Leo Shield and in the far north as part of the Reguibal Shield. It comprises basal granulites, charnockites, amphibolites and migmatiites succeeded by marbles, ferrugineous quartzites and paragneiss; these assemblages are intruded by metagabbros-anorthosites and serpentinites and syntectonic granites are abundant in the eastern part of the outcrop. The Tuareg Shield outcrops in the east in the Adrar des Iforas mountains and is dominated by high-grade granulitic assemblages unconformably overlain by Neoproterozoic volcano-clastic units.  Neoproterozoic–Palaeozoic sediments of the extensive intra-cratonic Taoudeni Basin underlie most of Mali and large parts of northern and eastern Mali are covered by Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments.

Mining

Gold and agricultural products, mainly cotton, comprise about eighty percent of Mali's exports. Mali’s mining sector is dominated by gold production. No other mineral commodities were produced in significant quantities in 2008 except for salt and semiprecious gemstones. Mali was the third largest gold producer in Africa (after South Africa and Ghana) accounting for 11.47% of total output. It is ranked 13th worldwide (2.25%). Gold production has decreased overall by 9.7% since its peak output in 2006. Birrimian greenstone belts host the structurally controlled gold mineralization in south-western and southern Mali. Morila mine is a predominantly flat lying mesothermal shear-zone-hosted deposit which occurs within a sequence of metamorphosed (Birrimian) meta-sediments. Gold mineralization is associated with silica feldspar alteration and the sulphide minerals arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite and minor chalocopyrite:
Mali is also endowed with as yet undeveloped resources of bauxite, copper, chromium, diamonds, gypsum, iron ore, kaolin, limestone, lithium, manganese, nickel, niobium, palladium, phosphate rock, rutile, silver, talc, thorium, tin, tungsten, uranium, zinc and zirconium, although some may not be commercially viable deposits.

Maps and images

Mining Exploration (Source: DNGM)

Randgold Resources is the company most active in the field of exploration in Mali, with the holding of large areas around the fields Loulo and Morila. In addition to exploration programs around the two mines, the company is actively involved in projects of general recognition throughout the Birimian in Mali. In the permit Loulo, Randgold control a stretch of over 45 km along the shear zone between Senegal and Mali, probably one of the most attractive gold fields of Africa. There is a group of 45 gold showings along this structure, including advanced targets located close to existing infrastructure. Field work, including diamond drilling, is underway in Baboto targets, P64 and Faraba, which should help increase project resources Loulo. In southern Mali major work, in and around the permit Morila, target of promising structural domains that are potentially favourable to cash of additional ore bodies Morila type.

Axmin Inc. continues to work in the project Kofi north of Loulo, where the theoretical mineral reserves are estimated at 45,000 ounces

Resolute Resources Ltd has an option to acquire up to 60% of the agreement Finkolo Etruscan Resources Inc. south of Syama.This permit is located in the Syama shear zone and the results of some reverse circulation drilling campaign in a recent survey showed average grades of 23.2 g / t Au over 18 m and 12.6 g / t At about 9 m. In addition to this property, Etruscan holds numerous other permits in southern Mali and the window-Kedougou Kenieba. The company recently announced positive intersections by auger in its license agreement Diba south of Sadiola.

Avnel Gold Mining Ltd has recently released the results of surveys conducted in the project Djirila south of Katana.The main results of 11.4 g / t Au over 24 m and 12.55 g / t over 19 m in an anomalous zone of only just over 200 m long.

North Atlantic Resources Ltd. has a number of permits in Mali and recent work has focused on the drilling of the target FT in the south. Intersections of 1.6 g / t Au over 46 m and 3.1 g / t Au over 35 m were obtained from two separate structures, roughly oriented NW-SE, and a total length of 1,800 m. North Atlantic is also in agreement with Diadem Resources Ltd. in which three licenses Diadem can acquire up to 60% of the shares.

African Gold Group Inc., which recently acquired the assets in the Malian Cominor (Cogema), will begin a program of diamond drilling in the project located in the Kobada Kangaba in southern Mali. The drill program is designed to test a wide mineralized zone 1000 m long located in a ground fault 12 km long. To date, a mineralized zone 300 m long and 20-30 m wide, with an average of 1-3 g / t Au, has been identified.

A Koman West, near the border with Guinea, the company Glencar Mining plc has undergone mineralization in quartz veins hosted in a northeast trending shear and a length of 1 km, with results of 55.2 g / t Au over 20 m and 13.2 g / t Au over 11 m registered by reverse circulation drilling. Glencar may acquire up to 85% participation in this project Goldfields Ltd. The company may take up to 65% in three other permits Glencar holds in the region, and has a right of first refusal for participation in the project Koman.

Great Quest Metals Ltd. holds several licenses in western Mali and intersected several mineralized quartz veins in his research. The work done in 2006 includes audit testing results previously obtained in the target Djambaye 2 south of the mine Tabakoto of Nevsun.Previous programs had tested a structure 400 m long intersections of 12.4 m at 2.8 g / t Au and 14.5 m at 2.5 g / t Au.

Many other mining companies are involved in exploration in Mali. Among these we must mention Cluff Gold plc, which entered into a license agreement in the north of Syama, Robex Resources Inc., which recently announced a 2,000 m reverse circulation drilling implanted targets in three of its permits in western Mali, and Delta Gold Ltd has planned to conduct surveys tests on soil anomalies in the draft Koninko south of Bamako.

In addition to the exploration of gold above, mining companies are also active in the search for diamonds, iron ore, base metals, bauxite and phosphate. 

Diamond

Click HERE for an overview


A total of 25 kimberlites have been located in Mali, of which 8 are diamondiferous. The Kéniéba area, close to the Senegalese border has seen the recovery of several large gem quality diamonds (one reaching 233 carats).

  •  Mink International (49%) and Ashton West Africa (51%), a subsidiary of Ashton Mining, were involved in a drilling programme on the 36,000 square km Kenieba diamond concession in Mali. The joint venture discovered 3 new kimberlite pipes, as well as over 60 new targets. The 44-hectare Kassama anomaly on the Tambaoura Plateau bordering the Kenieba Valley could be the largest known kimberlite pipe in West Africa.

Gold in Mali

Mali gold production rise to 51 tonnes in 2013Output rose 2% to 51 tonnes last year, beating a government forecast of 49 tonnes, data from the country’s mines directorate showed on Thursday.

Author: Reuters
Posted: Thursday , 23 Jan 2014
BAMAKO (Reuters)  -
Gold production in Mali rose 2 percent to 51 tonnes in 2013, beating a government forecast of 49 tonnes, data from the West African nation's mines directorate showed on Thursday.
Mali is Africa's number three gold producer behind South Africa and Ghana with major miners such as AngloGold Ashanti, Randgold Resources and Canada's Iamgold operating in the country.
The data showed output from industrial gold production hit 47 tonnes while 4 tonnes was produced from artisanal mining.
The mines directorate said it expected 2014 output to be higher, boosted by new projects, but did not give a figure. (Reporting by Tiemoko Diallo; Writing by Bate Felix; editing by Jason Neely)

Gold

Click HERE for an overview


Mali is today the third largest gold producer in Africa with several new mines being developed by Anglogold and Randgold Resources. The majority of this production is sourced from 3 large scale open cast operations.
First among these is the Sadiola mine. AngloGold, in partnership with Canada's IAMGOLD, started up Sadiola in 1997. Production at the Sadiola mine peaked in 2000 and has produced 0.479 million ounces in 2002 (at a total cash cost of US$172/oz). Another joint venture between AngloGold and Randgold Resources brought the Morila project on stream in October 2000. Morila is now the country's largest gold mine, with production of 1.053 million ounces in 2002 (at a total cash cost of US$74/oz). A third new mine, the heap-leach operation at Yatela, poured first gold in May 2001, and produced 0.268 million oz in 2002 (at a total cash cost of US$187/oz). These mines are among the lowest cost gold producers in the world.

Summary Table of Reserves & Resources
Mines
Reserves (Moz)
Resources (Moz)
Measured & Indicated
Inferred
Sadiola1
3
3.8
9.6
Yatela2
1.3
1.5
0.3
Morila3
4.2
4.7
0.5
Loulo4
1.5
3.5
0.8
Syama5
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.

Note:

1. Sadiola, located in 400 km WNW of Bamako, Kayes, Mali.owned by AngloGold Ltd, IAMGOLD Corporation, Mali Government, International Finance Corp.
2. Yatela, located in 25km north of Sadiola mine, Kayes, Mali.owned by AngloGold Ltd, IAMGOLD Corporation, Mali Government.

3. Morila, located in 4km south of Sanso, Sikasso, Mali.owned by AngloGold Ltd, Randgold Resources Ltd, Mali Government.
4. Loulo, located in 28 kilometers from Tabakoto, western Mali.owned by Randgold Resources Ltd.
5. Syama, located in 280 km SE of Bamako, Sikasso, Mali.owned by Randgold Resources Ltd, Mali Government, InternationalFinance Corp.The mine was initially brought into production in 1990 and has produced over 1.5 million ounces of gold. Following a sustained drop in the gold price, operations were suspended in early 2001 and the mine was placed on care and maintenance.

There are two main Birrimian greenstone belts as major focus of interest in Malian gold exploration : namely the Kenieba Valley at the Senegal border and the Tabakoto-Baroya area to the South-Southeast of the Capital City Bamako. Orebodies located in these belts usually contain multi-million ounces and become low-cost producers.
The Kenieba Valley belt comprises the Senegalese-Malian major shear that controls the gold deposits such as the Sadiola and Yatela mines to the north and the more southerly Loulo (Randgold), Tabakoto and Segala (Nevsun) discoveries, and the Medinandi deposit in the Tabakoto-Baroya region.
The South belt was the site of a major discovery (Morila) by Randgold in 1998. In its first full year of production (2001) it produced 631,650 ounces of gold at a cash operating cost of US $84/oz. Furthermore, in 1998-99 Ashanti was active in reevaluating the former Kalana Mine (23 tons of gold at 14 g/t) and the Kodieran deposit (2.56 M oz at 2.24 g/t) is at the detailed engineering stage prior to production.

Click HERE for a map showing mineral holdings in southern Mali

Click HERE for a map showing mineral holdings in western Mali

Birimian greenstone belts host the known structurally controlled gold mineralization in south-western and southern Mali. Morila is a predominantly flat lying mesothermal shear-zone-hosted deposit which occurs within a sequence of metamorphosed Birimian meta-sediments (amphibolite facies). Gold mineralization is associated with silica feldspar alteration and the sulphide minerals arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite (with minor chalocopyrite).

For a detailed description of the geology, mineralization and other mineral resources, see Gold in Mali.
  • AngloGold Ashanti (NYSE:AU; JSE:ANG) has three mines in Mali: Morila, Sadiola and Yatela. Morila (40%, Randgold Resources, (Nasdaq:GOLD; LSE:RRS), 40%) produced 655 000 oz of gold in 2005 at a grade of 5,41 g/t Au. Proved and probable ore reserves were 8,9 million t at a grade of 3,19 g/t Au or 29,5 t of gold. Sadiola (38%) and Yatela (40%) are close to each other and joint ventures with IAMGOLD Corporation (TSX:IMG; NYSE:IAG). Combined production was 688 000 oz of gold in 2005.
The Sadiola deposit is located within the Malian portion of the Kenieba–Kedougou window, a major Palaeoproterozoic inlier along the northeast margin of the Kenema–Man shield. The Birimian components of the window can be interpreted as a collage of at least two N-S trending terranes. To the west, an older (+/- 2.2 Ga) volcano-sedimentary succession intruded by major calc-alkaline batholiths belongs to the Saboussire Formation. It is separated from the dominantly sedimentary Kofi Formation by the major north to northeast trending Senegalo-Malian Shear Zone. The Kofi Formation is significantly younger and intruded by calc-alkaline batholiths dated at 2.0 – 2.05 Ga. Metamorphic grade attains greenschist facies, with amphibolite grades developed locally near major intrusions. The Senegalo-Malian Shear Zone hosts several significant gold deposits along its splays including Sadiola, Yatela, Loulo and Yalea. The Sadiola deposit is located in the north central section of the window and is hosted by sediments of the Kofi Formation, which have been intruded by numerous felsic intrusives. The sediments consist of fine-grained greywacke, probably distal turbidites, and impure carbonates with minor tuffs and acid volcanics. The deposit occurs along the 010º striking Sadiola Fracture Zone (“SFZ”), which is interpreted as a brittle-ductile splay off the Senegalo-Mali Shear Zone at a sinistral releasing bend. The SFZ follows the steeply west dipping contact between greywacke to the west and impure carbonate to the east. The SFZ and its wallrock are intruded by discontinuous diorite dykes, which may contain a weak mineral foliation and rarely intense ductile deformation. Quartz-feldspar-porphyry (QFP) dykes intrude younger, 020º striking and steeply west dipping faults and preserve more brittle deformational features. Pervasive gold mineralisation ranging in grade from 2 g/t to 20 g/t occurs along the SFZ over a strike length of approximately 2,500 metres and remains open to the north and south. The location and geometry of high grade mineralisation appears to be controlled by the confluence of the SFZ with the 020º striking splays, resulting in steeply to vertically plunging zones within the plan of the SFZ. Gold mineralisation occurs in all of the four major rock types (marble, greywacke, diorite and quartz-feldspar porphyry), and is spatially associated with a complex alteration pattern. Alteration assemblages identified to date include calcsilicate, potassic, chlorite–calcite and carbonate and point to a mesothermal origin for gold mineralisation. Gold is associated with both arsenic and antimony dominated sulphide assemblages including arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, stibnite and gudmundite. Primary gold is extremely fine grained, dominantly less than 15 microns, with rare grains approaching 50 microns. The Sadiola deposit has been intensely weathered to depths of up to 220 metres. The operation has mainly exploited soft oxide ore since startup with the current known oxide reserves expected to be mined out by 2016. A significant mineral resource of hard sulphide ore occurs below the final Sadiola pit design and is currently the target of an expansion project pending final approvals.

Sadiola open pit
  • Avnel Gold Mining Limited (Canadian,TSX:AVK.TO) owns and operates the Kalana mine which produced 14 923 oz of gold in 2005. It has underground proven and probable mineral reserves of 428 000 oz contained in 936 000 tonnes at a grade of 14,2 g/t Au, between 100m and 300 metres below surface.
  • Randgold Resources (Nasdaq:GOLD; LSE:RRS) operates the Loulo Mine, exploiting the Gara and Yalea orebodies and satellites with total measured and indicated reserves of 61,86 million t at a grade of 4,54 g/t Au or 9,03 million oz gold. Total production from the two open pits and two underground mines is expected to be in excess of 400 000 oz of gold per year. During 2006 exploration increased Loulo’s resources from 9,93 million oz to 11,35 million oz, and reserves increased from 5,59-million oz to 6,8-million oz
Loulo Gold Mine
  • Taurus Gold Ltd's Bakolobi deposit offers gold mining potential, as it lies in the highly mineralised Kenieba-Kedougou inlier, where globally over 50Moz of gold has been defined over 50km. The licence lies on the northern extension of the Fekola project (Papillon Resource, 3.14Moz at 2.4g/t) and is on the same structure, but to the south of the Tabakoto / Segala project (2.7Moz). Taurus Gold has completed a VTEM and aeromagnetic survey over the permit area and has used this information to delineate target areas.
  • Nevsun Resources (AMEX:NSU; TSX:NSU) operates the Tabakoto mine and adjoining Segala mining license. The combined Tabakoto/Segala surface open pit reserve base is 0,95 million oz, with a 9 year life producing a nominal 100 000 oz of gold per year.
  • Resolute Mining Ltd (Australian, ASX:RSG) exercised its option to buy Randgold Resources’ 80% interest in the Syama mine (State of Mali 20%) in April 2004, which had been kept under care and maintenance. Resources at Syama at the end of 2003 were 5,2 million oz of gold contained in 50,5 million t of ore at an average grade of 3,2 g/t Au and a feasibility study is being carried out to determine the viability of restarting the mine. The new drilling and remodeling resulted in an increased total resource of 66,6 million tonnes at 3,0g/t Au or 6,43 million oz of gold.
  • Frankfurt-listed Pearl Gold AG , which owns 25% of the project owner Wassoul’Or, announced in January 2012 construction work at Kodieran had been completed and that production facilities were being commissioned on a modular basis. The electrical generating system supplying electricity for the entire plant has been installed and tested up to its rated capacity of 9 kWh according to ISO standards. 
    Further, transporting raw materials from the openpit to the stockpile at the production plant has started and the water pumping system for the production process is fully functional. The Canadian company Bumigème, designated by Pearl Gold subsidiary and Kodieran concession holder Wassoul’Or to operate the plant, has successfully set up the electrical system and the control elements to start processing the raw material.  
    The company said international teams representing the different manufacturers of important components, which were incorporated into the production processes, are expected at the mine within the next days to overview the integrated commissioning.  

    Designed as an openpit, the Kodieran gold mine allows for low-cost gold production and has a daily production capacity of 11 000 t of raw material. Pearl Gold considers doubling the production capacity in two years as being a realistic target.  

    The gold deposit in Kodieran is expected to contain at least 1.75-million ounces of recoverable gold. The starting operation in Kodieran is one of five potential mining sites in Wassoul’Or’s concession.  

    The first investment of Pearl Gold is the Malian mining company Wassoul’Or, in which Pearl Gold holds 25% of shares. Wassoul’Or concentrates on the exploration and production of gold and runs the Kodieran gold mine in the south of Mali.
  • Papillon Resources Limited (Papillon or the Company) is an emerging West African gold developer focused on the exploration, appraisal and development of its flagship Fekola Project (Fekola or the Project), located in south western Mali, in order to fulfill its vision of becoming a gold producer in the near term. Drilling results to date at Fekola have confirmed the presence of strong gold mineralisation, including a well defined, shallow plunging, high grade zone that remains open at depth. Thick zones of high grade mineralisation have been intersected from near surface to a maximum vertical depth of 260 metres, including intersections of 57 metres @ 10.70 g/t, 86 metres @ 6.19 g/t and 98m at 5.41g/t gold. The Company released a maiden Mineral Resource Estimate (MRE) for Fekola in July 2012 which comprises 40.1 million tonnes averaging 2.4 g/t gold for a contained 3.14 million ounces of gold using a lower cut-off grade of 1.0 g/t gold. The MRE is based on just 24,500 metres of drilling, extending over a strike length of approximately two kilometres, to a maximum depth of 250 vertical metres. The mineralisation remains open at depth and along strike in both directions and accordingly, potential exists to substantially increase the resource base with ongoing work. A Scoping Study is being undertaken to confirm the early stage technical and economic viability of the Project and its capacity to operate economically for a range of conservative gold prices, using the current MRE as a base case scenario. A metallurgical testwork program, conducted as part of the Scoping Study, produced very encouraging results including leach recoveries in excess of 93%. The testwork results indicate that Gravity Recoverable Gold by gravity concentration and a conventional Carbon in Leach (CIL) process are best suited to the Project. The Scoping study is well advanced and scheduled for completion in the December quarter of 2012. 
  • Etruscan Resources (Canadian, TSX:EET) is exploring permits to the south of the Sadiola and Syama deposits. In June 2006, Etruscan announced a new gold discovery at Diba located 15 kilometers south of the Sadiola Gold Mine in Mali West. The mineralized zone at Diba covers an area measuring 2,5 kilometers in length and 300-500 meters in width. Etruscan's most advanced project in Mali is on the Finkolo exploration permit located in Mali South approximately 200 kilometers southeast of Bamako. The Finkolo permit covers 160 square kilometers along the Syama gold belt and is contiguous with the Syama holdings of Resolute Mining Ltd which hosts the 6,4 million oz Syama gold deposit. Resolute is managing and funding the exploration program at Finkolo pursuant to an option and joint venture agreement. Resolute has earned a 50% interest in Etruscan's 100% interest in the Finkolo Permit by expending US$2,000,000 prior to October 1, 2006. Resolute has the right to earn an additional 10% interest by either contributing a further US$1,000,000 to expenditures on the permit or completing a feasibility study by April 28, 2008. Drilling to date has concentrated on the Tabakoroni Zone, a well-defined volcano-sedimentary package that was outlined by an induced polarization survey over a distance of 6 kilometers. Gold mineralization at Tabakoroni has been traced over a distance of 1.7 kilometers and remains open to the north and to the south and at depth. Joint-venture partners Etruscan Resources and Resolute Mining boosted the resource estimate at the Tabakoroni deposit, on their co-owned Finkolo permit, in southern Mali, by 53%. At a 1 g/t cutoff, the updated resource estimate contains 4,62-million tons of measured and indicated resource, at 2,6 g/t (382 000 oz), and a further 4,54-million tons of inferred resource at 2,5 g/t (364 000 ounces), Estruscan said in a statement on January 7, 2008.
  • Endeavour Mining operates the Tabakoto Gold Mine, located in southwestern Mali, close to the Senegal border. Production was restarted in 2009 and in 2012 Tabakoto produced 110,301 ounces. Mining in 2013 is from one open pit as well as the Tabakoto underground mine. Ore is processed through a 2,000 tpd plant that has been expanded to 4,000 tpd with ramp-up during Q2/2013 and gold is recovered through a standard gravity-CIL process. Development has begun on a second underground mine, Segala, which represents approximately half of mineral resources. Underground drilling is ongoing to convert resources into reserves. In addition, there are numerous opportunities to target additional resources on the Tabakoto property as well as the nearby Kofi project.
  • Axmin Inc announced on December 11, 2007, a 25% increase in the gold resource identified at its Kofi Gold Project in western Mali during a January through July 2007 drilling program. Indicated ounces have more than doubled to 293,000 oz; inferredoz remained essentiallyunchanged at 368,000 ounces.
  • Central African Gold plc (AIM:CAN) also active in Botswana and Ghana) started a drilling programme at its gold exploration Medinandi Permit in west Mali to validate and test the Fadougou Main Zone and Medinandi prospect targets as well as quantify new structural targets in the area. Central African Gold CAG and Mali Mining House (MMH) have established a Joint Venture company called Mali Gold Fields for the exploration and development of 24 gold licences covering approximately 2,500 km2 of the prospective Birimian Gold Belt in south and west Mali. A further 19 licences covering approximately 750 km2 will be introduced into the Joint Venture, shortly bringing the total area held to 3,250 km2. MMH was established by members of the Malian Union Nationale des Opérateurs Miniers (UNOMIN), a collective of Malian title-holders.
  • Glencar Mining plc (GCMXF.PK, also active in Ghana, Uganda; delisted and now a subsidiary of Gold Fields B V) is exploring in southern Mali with an interest in five exploration concessions, totalling 1,250 square kilometres. Four of the five concessions, those at Komana, Bokoro, Sanioumale and Farasaba, are held 95% by Glencar (before the mandatory Government interest of 10%) and 5% by a Malian partner. Glencar holds a 51% interest in the fifth concession at Solona, and can acquire 100% of this concession through the payment of US$20,000 over a two year period. The Sankarani Project incorporates the three concessions at Bokoro, Sanioumale and Farasaba which are the subject of a Framework Agreement signed by Orogen Holding BVI Limited, a subsidiary of Gold Fields Limited (NYSE:GFI; JSE:GFIELDS), whereby Orogen has agreed, subject to certain conditions, to expend up to US$12 million on exploration to earn a 65% interest in the concessions. Glencar announced in October, 2007, that a preliminary independent resource study, carried out by SRK Consulting (UK) Ltd (SRK), has reported a mineral resource of 520,000 ounces of gold at Komana West in Mali. A report, written by SRK to accompany the resource estimate, states that the 520,000 oz represents only a portion of the resource likely to be demonstrated at Komana West following further exploration. The density of the drilling carried out to date does not provide sufficient certainty regarding ore continuity to enable additional ounces to be brought into resource category at this time and the report states that further infill drilling has the potential to increase the resource reported above by up to some 200,000 additional oz. Drilling was also to begin shortly on the Komana East target some seven kilometres to the east where the previous licencee established a non-JORC compliant resource of 280,000 oz (2.46 million tonnes of ore grading 3.49 grams/tonne) with a series of RAB, auger and diamond cored drillholes and trenching.
  • North Atlantic Resources Ltd (Canadian, TSX:NAC.TO) has acquired an option on the 185 square kilometer Kourouba gold exploration permit in southern Mali. The Kourouba project is located in the Koulikoro Region, 150 kilometers southeast of the capital, Bamako. The property covers a strike length of 14 kilometers of prospective stratigraphy in the Birimian Yanfolila greenstone belt.In the central part of the property, a previously completed soil sampling program, at a density of 500 meters by 200 meters, defined a north-trending, continuous, gold in soil anomaly, with samples containing at least 100 parts per billion gold over a nominal strike length of 2,500 meters and a peak value of 1,420 parts per billion (1.42 grams per tonne gold). Follow-up soil sampling, completed by the vendor of the property, confirmed the presence of gold in termite mound samples, indicating that the gold in soil anomaly is probably coincident with gold in saprolite and bedrock below the anomaly. The Company initially plans to complete 2,000 to 3,000 meters of air core drilling to determine the location, nature, and trend of gold concentrations in saprolite and bedrock over a strike length of 2,500 meters. Contingent upon the results of the air core drilling, the Company will complete an induced polarization survey and additional drilling. With the addition of the Kourouba project, the Company has 8 gold projects comprising 1,676 square kilometers of mineral rights in Mali. Since 2002, the Company has made gold discoveries at the Kantela project (2004), FT project (2005), and Massala project (2006). At the FT deposit, which is estimated to contain 218,800 oz of gold in the inferred category and 160,700 oz of gold in the indicated category, the Company is reviewing the results of the latest phase of drilling and assaying completed in 2006. The purpose of the review is to make recommendations for further work on the deposit and on exploration targets elsewhere on the property. It is anticipated that an induced polarization survey will be completed over the deposit and its extensions in February, 2007, before the next phase of drilling is completed. The Company anticipates that future drilling would be greatly optimized by the ongoing review of the geology and grade distribution of the deposit. At the Kantela project, the Company is completing a review of the drilling at Zone 2 in order to complete a preliminary model of the gold zone, and to complete additional drilling, if warranted. At the Massala project, the Company is planning to complete an induced polarization survey in the area where a reverse circulation drill hole intersected 12 meters grading 3,26 grams per tonne gold in 2006. Contingent upon the results of the geophysical survey, the Company will complete additional drilling in order to trace the extensions of the gold zone. In addition to the aforementioned gold projects, the Company continues to review data from several promising gold exploration prospects in Mali and anticipates that additional projects will be acquired in 2007.
  • Delta Exploration Inc (DEV.V) is exploring four gold prospective properties covering areas of extensive artisanal mining that have produced significant coarse gold over the years. These include the Manalo and Koninko projects, situated some 100 km southwest of Mali's capital city, Bamako, and an area covering 150km² near the Mali-Guinea border.
  • Medoro Resources Ltd exercised its option to acquire rights to seven of nine gold exploration and exploitation areas in the Republic of Mali for US$2.09 million, in September, 2007.
    The gold exploration company said it also issued 5.20 million of its shares to acquire African Gold Resources SA, a Panamanian company which holds the options to acquire the properties.
  • African Gold Group Inc acquired three gold concessions in Mali in 2005. It believes that the Kobada Trend has multi-million ounce potential. Infill drilling in Zone 1 has returned 81 metres of 1.21 g/t Au including 18 metres of 2.26 g/t and 48 metres of 2.95 g/t Au including 19.20 metres of 5.91 g/t Au. African Gold (AGG) has entered into a joint-venture (JV) agreement with Randgold Resources to explore AGG's Bagoe east and west in Mali, the company said in November, 2007.
    The Bagoe east and west concessions are located about 50 km from the Morila mine - one of the most significant gold discoveries on the African continent in recent times - which is jointly owned by Randgold Resources, AngloGold Ashanti and the government of Mali.
    AGG explained that Randgold would fund the exploration costs including the prefeasibility study, assuming the preliminary exploration results met Randgold's investment criteria.
    On completion of the prefeasibility study Randgold would acquire a 51% participation interest in the JV, and AGG's stake would be 49%.
  • Merrex Gold Inc (TSX VENTURE:MXI) owns a large land position in the West Mali gold producing area. Together with strategic partner Touba Mining, Merrex has acquired five mineral permits covering over 750 square kilometres and has permit applications in progress for an additional approximately 250 square kilometres, all within the West Mali Gold Belt, a region which currently produces in excess of one million ounces of gold per year from such well known large gold deposits as the Sadiola, Loulo and Tabakoto mines. The Merrex permits cover land with significant geological structures, associated geochemically anomalous gold zones, extensive orpailleur alluvial gold workings and artisinal underground workings.The Sirabaya Gold project is the main focus for the company and initial drilling results have been encouraging.
  • Golden Rim Resources has six exploration permits across two project areas for a total area of 226.5 km2 in western and southern Mali. The company's Sepola Project has 3.8 Mt @ 1.5 g/t for 181,000 oz gold (2010 JORC Inferred Resource) Located between Anglogold-IAMGOLD’s 13.5 Moz Sadiola Mine and Randgold’s 12 Moz Loulo Mine on the Kedougou-Kenieda Inlier – a major gold producing province with an annual regional production > 1.5 Moz go Exploration around the resource area is on-going to expand the current resource. The Faraba Project area covers the northern and southern strike extent of the regional structure hosting African Gold Group’s 1.1 Moz Kobada resource.



Oil and Natural Gas

To date, no proven hydrocarbon reserves have been found in Mali. However, many oil companies are currently exploring for oil, with focused exploration on the Taoudeni basin and the Graben de Gao in the northwest of the country.

Phosphates
  • Premier African Minerals Ltd's Oglat and Taoudenni Projects are located in the remote northern region of Mali in the Taoudenni Basin, an evaporite basin containing potassium and related evaporitic minerals. Premier has one Exclusive Exploration Authorisation in the Taoudenni area and one Exclusive Exploration Authorisation in the Oglat area. The region hosts quaternary formations known as ‘Sebkha de Taoudenni’ covering at least 160 square kilometres around Taoudenni. It is estimated that the known deposit includes 53 Mt of salt (NaCI), plus associated salts. A thin horizon of sylvite (KCI) has been detected at the top of the salt horizon. To date, there has been no potash exploration.

Uranium

  • Delta Exploration Inc (DEV.V) is exploring the Falea area which covers 150 km² of the Falea-North Guinea-Senegal basin, a Neoproterozoic sedimentary basin marked by significant radiometric anomalies. Between 1977 and 1981, Cogema conducted mapping and geochemistry in the Falea area culminating in a program of 81 vertical diamond drill holes totalling approximately 24,000m at 800x800 m and 200x200m spacing, and 5 inclined diamond drill holes totalling 630m. Copper and uranium mineralization was discovered associated with stromatolites in sandstones and shales within the Falea Basin. In 1981, Cogema dropped the Falea ground due to depressed metal prices. Rockgate Capital Corporation has earned a 60% interest in the Falea Uranium-Copper from Delta Exploration, and is the operator of the project. Rockgate reported that drilling completed between October and December 2007 has resulted in the discovery of a new zone of uranium mineralization over an area of 1100 x 300 metres.
  • Oklo Uranium Limited (Australia) is involved in early stage exploration in the northeastern Kidal region.
References


Economic geology of energy sources

Economic geology of nonmetal deposits

Economic geology of ore deposits

Economic geology, general

Economic geology, general, deposits

Economic geology, general, economics

Economic geology, geology of ore deposits