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Sierra Leone Mines and Minerals Act, 2009
Sierra Leone Petroleum Exploration and Production Act
The contribution of mining to total exports in 2010 amounted to 54.3%
Sierra Leone Mining News
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- Sierra Leone Ore and Metal Company mines at Mokanji at a rate of 1,5 million t per year.
Source: Sierra Leone.org
- Artisanal mining around the town of Koidu-Sefadu, in Kono District on the eastern border with Guinea and Liberia. Mechanized alluvial mining at the Magna Egoli alluvial mine along the Sewa River between the towns of Bo and Kenema. The mine was developed and run by Rex Mining of Antwerp until 2002, when operations were taken over by Fauvilla Ltd. and Waldman Diamond Resources of Israel.
- Energem Resources Inc (Canadian, ENM.TO) has a 40% stake in Koidu Holdings SA (Magna holds 35% and BSGR holds 25%) which is developing the Koidu kimberlite project as well as exploring three alluvial concessions Matemu, Upper and Middle Sewa and the Tongo Fields Kimberlite Dyke Deposit. Koidu comprises two pipes and four dyke zones and has estimated indicated and inferred resources of 1,52 million t @ 0,55 carats per tonne on the No. 1 pipe and 2,9 million t @ 0,26 carats per tonne (indicated and inferred resources) at the No. 2 pipe. Production for 2006 amounted to 80 152 carats with an average value of US$ 233 per carat (see video). By the end of 2007, the government of Sierra Leone had formerly ordered the temporary closure of the country’s sole operating kimberlite diamond mine after illegal mining activities by artisanal diggers in Koidu Holdings’ concession area made it impossible to safely exploit the deposit.
- Cream Minerals Ltd (Canadian, CRMXE.OB, CRMXF.OB, CMA.V) entered into an agreement with Casierra Diamond Corporation ("CDC") and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Casierra Development Fund Inc. ("CDF") (collectively, Casierra") to earn an interest in production from two exclusive prospecting licence areas for diamonds and other minerals and metals in Sierra Leone. Cream has the option to earn up to a 70% interest in the property. Casierra has been working in Sierra Leone since 1993 and obtained its first prospecting licence on the Sewa River, which drains the Kono diamond area. Kono is an important centre of diamond production in Sierra Leone with a high percentage of gem quality diamonds coming from kimberlite and alluvial sources. Extensive alluvial diamond exploitation has been carried out upstream of the CDF licence. In late 1994, CDF obtained its second offshore special Exclusive Prospecting Licence at the mouth of two rivers with extensive alluvial diamond mining activity, the Moa and the Mano. In a report written for the Geological Survey of Sierra Leone "The Diamond Fields of Sierra Leone", Hall (1966), reports production from 1950 to 1965 on the section of the river above the Sewa River licence, as 42,000 cubic yards with an average recovered grade of 0,75 carats per yard. He further reports 64,000 cubic yards production at similar grade for the same period from the section downstream from the licence and suggests substantial reserves remain in these areas. Based on study of the Sewa River placers and minor sampling, Hall presents an estimate for the section of the river contained within the licence area. He suggests 2,900,000 cubic yards at 0,4 carats per yard for the channel gravels and 1,500,000 cubic yards at 0,4 carats per yard for the flats and low terraces. Cream reported in August, 2007, that its joint venture partner, Casierra Development Fund Inc ("CDF") had applied for mining licences covering 31 acres (12 hectares) within its diamond exploration licence on the Sewa River in Sierra Leone. This will enable the joint venture to continue bulk sampling and start small scale mining of alluvial diamonds and gold. If, as anticipated, the licences are granted, the joint venture will be in a legal position to sell any production results after submitting the gem stones to the Government of Sierra Leone for royalty payment and the Kimberley Process Certification.
- Mano River Resources Inc (Canadian, MNO.V) has created a new subsidiary Stellar Diamonds Limited to handle its diamond assets for which it plans to list on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM) in London within a year, the company announced on April 5, 2007. The company intends starting underground diamond production on the Kono kimberlite dyke joint venture with Petra Diamonds in 2008. Petra Diamonds has a 51% interest in the Kono Project. Diamond recovery from the first bulk samples from the Lion fissures commenced in June, 2006. Petra said in September, 2007, that test work had combined weathered, diluted and mixed underground diamondiferous kimberlitic material, which had yielded 2,809 diamonds, totalling 241.7 carats. The ten largest stones ranged from 7.2 carats down to 0.65. The work done then was too limited to determine a representative grade or value. Minerva Resources has a minority interest (24.5%) in the Lake Sonfon Diamond Project, operated by Manor River Resources. Mano River Resources has announced that reconnaissance work has confirmed the presence of macro-diamonds, one of which is classified as a clear white octahedral gemstone weighing 0.315 carats, and of kimberlite indicator minerals, within the Lake Sonfon JV area.
- Stellar Diamonds Limited is the Sierra Leone subsidiary of Stellar Diamonds Limited , a company registered in the British Virgin Islands and is advancing the Tongo project in Sierra Leone to the mine development stage after a positive preliminary economic assessment demonstrated an NPV of US$53 million and IRR of 31% (pre-tax) through mining almost 1 million carats over an 18 year life of mine. The starting capital for the first four years is estimated to be US$24.8 million which will enable both surface and underground mining to be established. The proposed Tongo Mine (Tongo) is located in the Kenema District, Eastern Province of the Republican State of Sierra Leone approximately 45 km northnorth-east of the regional town of Kenema. The Tongo License is located on the ~3.0 Ga Leonean Province of the Archaean Man Craton (McFarlane et al 1981) that is comprised of typical granite-greenstone terranes of this age. The granitic areas comprise tonalite-trondhjemitegranodiorite-gneisses and these occupy approximately 65% of the Craton (Skinner et al 2004). Basic intrusives, mostly dolerites, of Triassic-Jurassic age cross cut the ancient basement. These dykes were emplaced during, and subsequent to, the continental rifting that separated West Africa from South America. Strong lineament development is also a hallmark of this event, and it has been suggested that these deep seated lineaments were used as pathways by kimberlite magmas during the Cretaceous (Haggerty, 1982; Venkatakrishnan & Cluver, 1989). The kimberlites in the Tongo diamond fields are mostly dykes of which four sets have been identified within the Tongo license and on both the neighbouring Koidu Holdings (Octea Mining) property and the former River Diamonds property (now held by Koidu Holdings) further to the south west. These have variously been named the Lando, Kundu, Peyima and Panguma dykes. In the Koidu Holdings license, dykes of at least three textural varieties of kimberlite have been recognised. The Tongo kimberlites have an estimated age of around 140Ma (see Skinner et al 2004) but no actual radiometric dating has been conducted on them. The Tongo dyke average thicknesses range from 30cm to 45cm, though in certain areas increased widths are noted. The strike is between 070 degrees and 088 degrees with vertical or near vertical dips.
- African Diamonds plc (AFCDF.PK, also active in Botswana, Guinea) holds two exploration licences and a mining lease over a large tailing deposit. West African Diamonds plc (WAD) is a diamond focused explorer with operations in Sierra Leone and Guinea. Formed from the West African assets of AIM LIsted African Diamonds plc and recently acquire additional licences in Guinea. WAD contains a portfolio of development and advanced exploration assets across West Africa.
- River Diamonds plc (RVD.L) is exploring the kimberlite dykes at Panguma adjacent to the Tongon diamondiferous kimberlite dykes. The company estimates that the kimberlite dykes on the concession represent between 1-million and 1,2-million tons of kimberlite. At an average grade of between 50 and 70 carats per hundred tons, this represents between 500 000 ct and 840 000 ct.
- Sierra Leone Diamond Company Ltd and its wholly owned subsidiaries have assembled a portfolio of mineral rights in Sierra Leone, covering some 36,364 square kilometres, which rights include not only diamonds but in many cases also precious metals, base metals, iron ore, rutile, bauxite and rare earths. The focus is on the discovery of diamondiferous kimberlite deposits.
- Target Resources plc operates through its subsidiary Milestone Trading Ltd and its Sierra Leone subsidiaries. Its main objective is the recovery of alluvial diamonds and gold in the Kono district of Sierra Leone.
- Mano River Resources Inc. (MNO.V) holds seven gold properties in central Sierra Leone totaling approximately 750 km², which include Nimini, Sonfon, and Pampana North and South. Golden Star Resources Ltd (AMEX:GSS; TSX:GSC) has entered into a joint venture agreement (earning up to 85%) and is engaged in regional early stage exploration.
- Cluff Gold plc ( CLUGF.PK, also active in Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso and Mali) has a right to earn a 60 per cent interest in the Baomahun project in Sierra Leone to be acquired from Winston Mines which owns the two exploration licences relating to Baomahun covering an area of approximately 137 km2. A total of more than 9,000 m of drilling has been completed during 2005 and 2006 and a resource of more than 880,000 oz has been established to date.
- West African Diamonds plc has commenced gold exploration in the Nimini Hills Greenstone Belt. Early reconnaissance sampling for gold at the Nimini Hills gave encouraging results.
- Amara Mining plc's Baomahun project ( see Cluff Gold above) has reached feasibility stage in Sierra Leone and is wholly owned by the Company. An updated resource estimate, consisting of 2.24Moz Au in indicated resources and 0.54Moz Au in inferred resources, is hosted in an area of approximately 2 sq. km, while the total project licence area is 136 sq. km. The Company has a two-fold strategy for Baomahun: to advance towards production with the current resources while delineating additional ounces along the 12km strike. The Company is advancing Baomahun towards its bankable feasibility study, which was due in H1 2013. SRK Consulting Limited has completed an initial open pit mine schedule based on a US$1,150 per ounce gold price, which contained 1.2 million ounces of indicated resources at an average diluted grade of 2.23g/t and a strip ratio of 12.6:1. The indicative open pit also contains 0.1 million ounces of inferred resources which have been treated as waste in the initial analysis. This generates a eight year mine life, producing 1.1 million ounces of gold at an average rate of 135,000 ounces per annum
- London-listed African Minerals has continued to build momentum since the attainment of its targeted 20-million-tonnes-a-year export run rate at Tonkolili in June 2013, posting quarterly iron-ore production of four-million tonnes – an 81% improvement on the prior three months. Mining capacity at the Sierra Leone-based operation continued to grow, with 5.5-million tonnes of material moved in the period, a 67% increase over the previous quarter. Exported grade improved slightly from 57.9% iron to 58.2% iron, while moisture levels remained stable at around 11%. Quarterly sales rose 65% to 3.4-million tonnes. As a result of the continued improvement in production, estimated cash costs fell from $49/t in the first quarter, to an average of $40/t in the second quarter. On the downside, African Minerals’ achieved free-on-board price in Sierra Leone declined from $89/t in the first quarter to $70/t in the second, attributable chiefly to a drop in the benchmark price, a higher proportion of sales into the Shandong agreement, adjustments on final invoicing and the additional discount associated with selling lump blend. The Tonkolili project boasts an estimated 60-year mine life and a Joint Ore Reserves Committee-compliant resource of 12.8-billion tonnes, and was being developed in a number of staged expansions. The next stage of project expansion would pursue the production of up to 35-million tonnes a year of 64% high-grade hematite concentrate, in conjunction with the expansion of the current port facilities at Pepel. African Minerals had also developed significant port and rail infrastructure to support the operation of the project, through its subsidiary African Rail and Port Services, in which the government of Sierra Leone has a 10% free-carried interest. Looking ahead, guidance for sales was reiterated at between 13-million tonnes and 15-million tonnes, in 2013, with production targeted at between 15-million tonnes and 18-million tonnes over the 12 months. African Minerals said in January,2014 it was aiming to increase its rate of production this year, with a second phase of expansion planned for the end of 2014. The company said it was targeting a sustainable production run rate of 20 million tonnes in 2014, which the company achieved at times last year.
- London Mining plc started production at the Marampa mine in
December 2011 and in 2013 produced 3.4Mwmt of sinter concentrate. The Company
expanded production capacity to 5.4Mwmt/a in 2013, and is
increasing it further to 6.5Mwmt/a. Marampa has a mineral resource
of over 1 billion tonnes of iron ore including a Probable Reserve of 539Mt
grading 31.1% Fe, sufficient for over 40 years of mine life.
London Mining slipped into administration in mid October 2014 after it ran out of funds and failed to secure a buyer for the company, but said that it would work with its administrator PricewaterhouseCoopers to ensure a buyer for the mine.
Iron ore miner African Minerals Ltd said in November 2014 it had agreed to provide Timis Corporation, owned by its Chairman Frank Timis, access for transporting ore from the Marampa mine, which the private company bought from failed miner London Mining.
In October 2005, Sierra Leone signed an agreement with Nigerian’s oil and natural gas company, Frazimex Ltd, allowing the company to explore for oil in Block 3 for seven years. Several test wells drilled in the 1970's on Sierra Leone's continental shelf produced "shows" of oil.
- Jubilee Platinum plc's York PGM Project. Joint venture (50%) with AIM listed Golden Prospect plc which covers the central section of the Freetown Layered Gabbro Complex, an area with a history of artisanal platinum production. A reconnaissance programme in early 2004 extended the known mineralization (soil samples assaying previously up to 0,84 g/t) of an anomalous 2 m-wide PGM zone to 8,5 km strike length from 5 km, with similar elevated PGMs in soil samples. A second-phase programme of trenching was completed in 2005.
- Associations of Precambrian diamond-bearing conglomerates
- Der Einsatz mathematischer Methoden bei der Exploration und Erfassung von Rutil-Seifen in Sierra Leone (W-Afrika). Application of mathematical methods for the exploration and reconnaissance of rutile placer deposits in Sierra Leone, West Africa
- Geologie du diamant; deuxieme partie; Gisements de diamant d'Afrique. The geology of diamonds; 2nd part, Diamond deposits of Africa
- Sampling of alluvial diamond deposits in West Africa; Geological, mining and metallurgical sampling
- Struktur, Schwermineralfuehrung, Genese und Bergbau der sedimentaeren Rutil-Lagerstaetten in Sierra Leone (Westafrika). Structure, genesis, heavy mineral content, and mining of sedimentary rutile deposits in Sierra Leone
- The changing markets for rutile, ilmenite, and zircon; Proceedings of the 2nd 'industrial minerals' international congress; held at the Sheraton Hotel, Munich, on 17-19 May, 1976
- Heavy metal distribution in laterites, southwest of Regent, Freetown igneous complex, Sierra Leone
- Investigation of the residual iron ores of Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone
- Les mines de fer mondiales et la préparation des minerais - Afrique
- On the occurrence of native platinum with copper sulphides at Congo dam, Sierra Leone
- Regional geochemical reconnaissance in Sierra Leone
- Secondary dispersion of molybdenum from mineralization, Sierra Leone
- Sekundaere Rutillagerstaetten in Sierra Leone (West-Afrika). Secondary rutile deposits in Sierra Leone, west Africa
- Surficial deposits and topography in an area of recent laterite formation in the southwestern Sahara platform
- The molybdenum-bearing granite of the Wankatana river, Sierra Leone
- The role of some statistical and mathematical methods in the interpretation of regional geochemical data
- The role of some statistical and mathematical methods in the interpretation of regional geochemical data [discussion]
- The role of some statistical and mathematical methods in the interpretation of regional geochemical data; a reply
- Zur Exploration der Lagerstaette Rotifunk, Sierra Leone /Westafrika. Exploration of the Rotifunk Deposit in Sierra Leone, West Africa
- Regional geochemical reconnaissance in eastern Sierra Leone [discussion]
- Regional geochemical reconnaissance in eastern Sierra Leone [discussion]
- Regional geochemical reconnaissance in Sierra Leone [discussion]
- Sampling of alluvial diamond deposits in West Africa
- Sierra Leone
- Sierra Leone stakes its mineral claims
- The geology and mineral resources of Sierra Leone
- The mineral industry of Sierra Leone
- Financing African mining developments; Mining activity survey
- Les mines de fer mondiales et la préparation des minerais - Afrique
- Mineral potential and environmental impact of mining in Sierra Leone; Geological Society of America, 1997 annual meeting