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Zambia

Geological Survey Department (GSD)Ministryof Mines and Minerals Development
P.O.Box 50135, Lusaka
Phone:+260-1-251655/250056/250174
Fax:+260-1-251557/250056/250174
gsd@zamnet.zm
 http://www.zambia-mining.com/


Zambia Mining Act
Mines and Minerals Development Act
Zambia Mining Cadastre Map

Chamber of Mines

CIA Factbook

Source: CIA Factbook

Legend



Geology

The geology of Zambia can be subdivided into a composite granitic Basement Complex, comprising Paleoproterozoic Ubendian System high-grade metamorphics and metasediments-metavolcanics of the Mesoproterozoic Kibaran System; Neoproterozoic metamorphic units of the "Pan African" Mozambique Belt and low grade metamorphics, intrusive rocks and sediments of the Muva and Katanga Supergroups. The Muva Supergroup exhibits a tectonic contact with the Basement complex sequences and the Katanga supergrop overlies the Basement and/or Muva sequences with a marked angular unconformity. The Katanga Supergroup is exposed throughout the Copper Belt and NW Zambia and hosts the bulk of the Cu-Co mineralisation. Jurassic to Cretaceous Karoo Supergroup sequences occupy the rift valleys and the western region of the country. The lower part of the Karoo comprises conglomerates, sandstones and carbonaceous silt-mudstones; the unconformably overlying upper Karoo comprises a series of clastic sediments passing up into mudstones and finally basalts. Overlying the Karoo are late Mesozoic sandstones and mudstones of the Kalahari Group plus Tertiary and Quaternary sediments.

Mining

Copper mining and refining dominates the mineral industry of Zambia and its economy has experienced strong GDP growth of about 6% annually during the period 2005-08 the result of  a steady increase in copper output, higher copper prices and foreign investment. It was also a significant producer of cobalt and gem-quality amethyst, beryl and emerald. Globally, the country ranks seventh in the production of copper and second in cobalt accounting for 3% and 11% respectively of total world output. It is Africa’s leading producer of copper (58%) and registered an increase in production of 9.9% in 2008. Cobalt production, however, declined by 13.4% over the same period. From 2004 when there was no recorded production gold output has continued to grow and registered an increase in 2008 of 33.4%. Zambia is the fourth largest producer of coal in Africa, albeit dwarfed by South Africa, and is a major producer of amethyst (1200 tonnes), beryl, emerald and tourmaline. The Munali nickel mine started production in April 2008 with a projected annual capacity of 1.2Mt yielding 10,500 tonnes nickel concentrate, 1650 tonnes of copper, 480 tonnes cobalt and 560kg of Platinum Group Metals (PGM’s). Operations were temporarily suspended in March 2009. The deposit has a total resource of 123,500 tonnes of nickel and 7676kg of PGM’s.

Maps and images



Zambia possesses substantial coal resources and has been producing coal continuously since 1967. The bulk of the coal has come from the Maamba coal mine, an open-cast operation in the southern part of the country near Lake Kariba. The Maamba deposit and other known coal occurrences are confined exclusively to the lower-Karoo Gwembe Formation, within the series of fault-controlled basins that comprise the Mid-Zambezi Rift Valley. The Maamba deposit occurs within the Kazinze Basin but coal seams have also been discovered in the adjacent basins. 
Thin coal seams and carbonaceous shales have also been identified in the lower Karoo (Gwembe Formation) of the Luangwa and Luano-Lukusashi Valleys and in the eastern part of the Barotse Basin in western Zambia.

Cobalt

In the DRC and in Zambia, cobalt is a significant co-product of stratiform, sediment-hosted copper-cobalt ores. The largest single source of cobalt lies within the stratiform copper deposits of the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia and the DRC. This mineralized belt of numerous deposits combining approximately 5,4 billion tons, is approximately 480 km long and between 32 and 48 km wide.
  • Chambishi Metals plc (a joint venture of International Metals Resources and the Beni Stein Group Resources) is he largest cobalt producer in Zambia with a forecasted production of 4 000 t of cobalt for 2007. It produced about 3 400 t in 2006. Chambishi expects to raise output to 5 000 t/y in 2010 from 3 000 t/y now by buying extra raw material, a senior company official said in September, 2007. The company would raise cobalt output to 4 000 t/y after Zambia's new Mulyashi copper mine comes on stream in the first quarter of 2008.
  • Caledonia Mining Corporation has signed a cobalt offtake agreement with a Chinese refiner, for cobalt produced at the company's Nama project, in northern Zambia.
    Caledonia will supply a minimum of 21 000 t of cobalt metal equivalent, in the form of cobalt hydroxide, from the Nama projecty over a six-year period.
    The company is planning to start producing from the openpit mine earlyin 2009, and expects output to average 10 000 t/y of cobalt metal.
    The offtake deal announced in January, 2008, specifies that the price will be based on the published monthly average for 99,3% cobalt from the London Metal Exchange, and contains a guaranteed 'take or pay' minimum cobalt price of $12/lb of cobalt metal. The spot price for cobalt at that stage was $44/lb.

Copper


In excess of one billion tonnes of ore (c.2.7% Cu) have been mined from the mines of the Copperbelt and conservative estimates suggest that a further two billion tonnes await exploitation. The copper-cobalt mineralization is stratabound within arenites, shales and carbonate rocks of the lower-Katanga Mine Series Group. Copper resources have also been identified in the thrust zones of north-western Zambia which represent zones of detachment between Basement and Katanga sequences, and in western and central Zambia where shearing and intrusion emplacement through the lower Katanga succession have generated a considerable number of lode, stockwork, breccia and skarn deposits. Other types of deposit include the disseminated copper mineralization in the granites and aplites of the Mkushi area and copper-bearing stratiform sulphides in the Lusaka area.
Zambia produced about 500 000 tonnes of copper in 2006, but with the revival of the industry and new discoveries it is expected that production will double by 2011.
  • Konkola Copper Mines plc (KCM) is the largest mining and metals company in Zambia with annual capacity of 200,000 metric tonnes of copper. KCM is a subsidiary of Vedanta Resources plc, a London listed metals and mining group.
    It operates the following mines:
    Nchanga Underground
    Konkola Underground
    Nampundwe Pyrite Mine
  • Equinox Minerals Ltd (now subsidiary of Barrick Gold Corporation) owns the Lumwana copper mine in north-western Zambia. Measured and Indicated Reserves presently total 321 million tonnes averaging 0,73% copper (5,97 billion pounds of contained copper) with additional Inferred Resources totalling 417 million tonnes averaging 0,6% copper (over 7,8 billion pounds of contained copper).The Lumwana mine will produce an average of 169,000 tonnes of cathode copper per year for the first six years of its 37-year mine life and construction was on schedule for commissioning in the second quarter of 2008. Potential by-products include gold, cobalt, uranium and sulphuric acid. China's Chambishi copper smelter in Zambia has agreed to process 230,000 tonnes of copper concentrate per year (55% 0f planned output) from Lumwana Copper Mines under a new five-year deal. The Chambishi smelter is a new Zambian partnership between China Nonferrous Metal Mining (Group) Co. Ltd. (CNMC), which owns 60 percent of the shares, and Yunnan Copper Industry (Group) Co. Ltd (YNCIG), which holds the remainder. Construction of the Chambishi smelter commenced in December 2006. The smelter is expected to begin production in late 2008 and will be producing 150,000 tonnes of copper cathode per year.
Barrick Gold Corp.purchased Equinox Minerals Ltd. for $7.3-billion in 2011, but the prized Lumwana copper mine in Zambia turned out to be a cash drain as extraction costs rose.
  • Glencore International AG (73,1%), with shareholders First Quantum Minerals (16,9%) and ZCCM (10%), operates the underground Mopani Copper Mines at Mufulira and Kitwe. Copper output was 180,0000 t in 2005 and the estimated mine life is 20 years. Mopani Copper Mines also operates the Nkana mine and Mufulira smelter, which has capacity to produce 850,000 tonnes of copper per year.
  • First Quantum Minerals Ltd (Canadian, FM.TO) operates the Kansanshi Cu-Au mine, 15 kilometres north of Solwezi, North Western Province with an estimated resource of 433 million tonnes grading 1.16% copper and 0.16 g/t gold (0.5% Cu cut-off); the Lonshi open pit mine at Ndola with a resource of 3.5 million tonnes grading 5.77% acid soluble copper or 199,837 tonnes copper and has a 16,9% interest in Mopani Copper Mines. First Quantum Minerals also owns 17% of Perth-based Equinox Minerals.
  • The Industrial Development Corporation (South African), together with Metorex (35%) owns and operates the Chibuluma South mine. Metorex produces 13,000 tonnes/year of contained copper from the Chibuluma plant in Zambia. It is also building a processing complex in central Zambia that will produce 100,000 tonnes/month of A-grade copper cathode from third parties and its Ruashi mine in the Congo. A zinc SX/EW plant is also being developed at Sable.
  • China Nonferrous Metal Mining (Group) Company Ltd (CNMC) operates the Chambishi Copper Mine. Total investment in the the project is USD 150 million and CNMC holds 85%. In 1998 the company was granted 85 square kilometers of mining rights and surface usage rights of 41 square kilometers. Reserves and resources are 5 million tonnes with an average copper grade of 2.2%. Contained cobalt metal has been estimated at 150,000 tonnes.
  • Changfa Resources Limited (CRL) of China is developing the Mokambo underground copper mine. It has been closed since 1976 due to falling copper prices on the international market and flood problems. CRL public relations officer Webster Popo said in a statement in Ndola on 15 July 2013 that an EIA was conducted successfully at the construction site and the report has been submitted to ZEMA for approval.
  • Zambezi Resources Limited and Glencore International AG have completed a joint venture agreement for the exploration and development of the Cheowa and Chongwe copper projects in southern Zambia. Glencore can earn 51% by spending US$10 million on exploration, with a minimum commitment of US$4 million. An Inferred Resource estimate of 1,7 million t at 1, 5% copper and 0,5 g/t gold reported above a 0.5% copper cut-off on one of 23 VTEM geophysical targets identified within the Cheowa Project area, has been reported. The mineralization is associated with a shear-hosted breccia zone, dominated by chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-pyrite. Zambezi Resources announced a 68 % increase in the resource tonnes for its Cheowa Copper-Gold Project based on initial results from its 2007 exploration program. Zambezi said that a revised JORC compliant Indicated Resource had been completed for the Project comprising 2.9 million tonnes at 1.05% copper and 0.22g/t gold for 31,000 tonnes of contained copper metal and 20,000 ounces of contained gold. Zambezi Resources announced on January 21, 2008, encouraging progress on its Kangaluwi Copper Project in southern Zambia. Reverse Circulation drilling at Kangaluwi has returned excellent results including 7m at 2.14% copper from 59m, 7m at 1.45% copper from 143m, 15m at 0.96% copper from 88m, 21m at 0.96% copper from 9m, 13m at 0.92% copper from 118m, 15m at 0.86% copper from 39m, and 11m at 0.74% copper from 7m. The 2007 drilling program was designed to extend and infill significant results from limited RC drilling carried out in 2006 and to produce a preliminary resource figure for Kangaluwi. Strike continuity of the mineralisation has been demonstrated over a distance of 3 kms based on received assays and visual indications from both RC and diamond drilling.
  • African Eagle Resources plc is exploring and developing the Mkushi project in joint venture with CGA Mining Limited. The inferred resource to date is 7,1 million t at a grade of 0,90% Cu. In February, 2008, drilling was still under way, but the then interim resource estimate of 10,7-million tons at 1,11% copper was used for the prefeasibility study. The Ndola Project covers 428 square kilometres in the southern part of the Central African Copperbelt. African Eagle's licence surrounds the historic Bwana Mkubwa Mine and lies midway between First Quantum Minerals' Frontier and Lonshi Mines. Past explorers reported a deposit in the northwest of the licence, estimated to contain 40 million t at 0,75% copper (not JORC compliant). Phelps Dodge, through a subsidiary, holds an option to earn-in to the Ndola project and is financing African Eagle's current £1 million exploration program. At the Eagle Eye Project in southeast Zambia, African Eagle has discovered a iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) mineralized system, with a strike extent of 25km or more. Drilling has revealed potentially economic grades and thicknesses in several places and exploration is continuing. African Eagle has also regained sole rights to the Lunga Project in central Zambia by agreement with its former exploration partner, MinEx Projects (Pty) Ltd. The Lunga licence area is composed of rocks of the Katangan System which are similar in age to those of the Copperbelt. African Eagle and its former partners have completed geochemical and airborne geophysical surveys which have identified two main copper-gold prospects within the licence: the historic Buffalo mine in the north and the Karenda Dome in the south. There is also potential for calcrete-hosted uranium near the centre of the project area. African Eagle Resources was awarded the Mokambo South Prospecting Licence with an indicated deposit of about 6 million tonnes with some 140,000 tonnes of contained metal, in September, 2007. African Eagle also said it had entered into an agreement with Copperbelt Minerals that would see the companies jointly explore and develop the two prospecting licences at Mokambo. These licences cover both Mokambo North and South - which in all make up a narrow strip of 25.9 square kilometres of land. Based on drilling conducted in the 1960s and 1970s, Mokambo South was estimated to contain about six-million tons at 2,3% copper and Mokambo North was estimated to contain at least 3,8-millon tons at 1,69% copper in two separate lenses. African Eagle said that these unclassified historical estimates referred to sulphide mineralisation only, as oxide copper mineralisation was of little interest at that time.
  • TEAL Exploration & Mining Incorporated is conducting a feasibility study at its wholly-owned Konkola North copper project in Zambia. The company expects that the Konkola North Copper Project final feasibility study will be completed by early 2008 and, following discussions with TEAL's partner in theproject, ZCCM Investment Holdings plc, it will be prepared for a decision by the Company's Board of Directors during the first quarter of 2008. Teal Exploration & Mining said in February, 2008, it may go forward with a copper mine project at Konkola in Zambia in the next few weeks. It plans to establish a $160 million 25,000-ton-a-year mine.
    Teal aims to increase annual copper output to 65,000 metric tons by 2012 from an estimated 8,500 tons in 2008. That includes a possible expansion at its Lupoto mine in the Democratic Republic of the Congo at a cost of about $240 million.
  • Caledonia Mining Corporation holds 5 contiguous licences covering an area of 806 square kilometres on the northern extension of the Zambian Copperbelt which host low grade cobalt / copper mineralization.
    The Konkola West licence covers the southern and western portions of the Konkola Dome and the presence of the ore shale horizon which hosts the Konkola Deep and Musoshi (Democratic Republic of Congo) deposits on the northern and eastern sides of the Dome, has been identified within the licence area.
    It also holds three exploration licences at Kadola covering an area of 5,665 square kilometres of the southern extension of the Zambian Copperbelt. Caledonia is holding discussions with potential joint venture partners for the exploration of the copper/cobalt potential of Konkola and Kadola.
  • ICS Copper Systems Ltd is exploring the Mokambo property with a historical resource of 24 million tonnes grading between 1,47% and 1,72% Cu. ICS holds an option agreement to acquire up to 80% of the Mokambo Property which is situated 14 km from the city of Mufulira. Plant construction at Mokambo could start by May, 2008, with first production anticipated by the end of 2008.

Diamond

Click HERE for an overview

Alluvial diamonds have been reported throughout much of northern, north-eastern and western Zambia and in many places are accompanied by indicator minerals. Kimberlite and lamproite intrusions occur within and near to the western flank of the Luangwa River and also in southern Zambia.

There is a lack of published   data   on the   age and description of alluvial diamondiferous deposits. Five alluvial deposits are indicated on the Zambian geological and mineral occurrence map, four of which are located on or close to the present drainage system. One deposit  is located on  a minor  river  draining  into   Lake  Mweru, some  262  km  west-northwest of  Kasama,  and  this infers derivation from a local diamondiferous kimberlite or  lamproite. Similarly,  local  sources  are  inferred for placers 100  km southeast  of lsoka 85  km north-northeast of  Mpika,  and   32  km  north­ northeast of  Zambezi,  all of  which  lie  close  to  small tributaries of  the  Luangwa, Chambeshi  and  Zambezi rivers respectively.

The Kapamba lamproites form a northwest-trending group of about 25 km long and include several non¬-diamondiferous pipes. The lamproites intrude sediments of the Karoo Supergroup that overlie metasedimentary basement   rocks   within the   1 355   million years lrumide tectonic belt. The lamproites and Karoo Supergroup sediments lie within the downfaulted Luangwa graben and an emplacement age of 220 Ma predates the major period of faulting associated with this graben. All the pipes have a crater facies that contains mostly lapilli tuffs and these overlie a diatreme facies consisting of lamproite and breccia. The pipes range in area up to 0, 45 km2. The diamondiferous lamproites  have a high olivine content  and are located in the northwestern part of  the  cluster,  whereas  the  non-diamondiferous lamproites are leucite rich and occur in the southeastern part  of  the  cluster. Most  of the  diamonds  are smaller  than  0,1  carat,  but  larger stones, up to  0,5  carat,  were  found  in one pipe, and the tetrahexahedroid crystal  form predominates.

Three diamondiferous kimberlite pipes are also emplaced   within Karoo Supergroup sediments    within the    Luangwa    graben   east   and northeast of the lamproites. These  three  pipes  intrude   the  underlying lrumide   tectonic  belt  and  are  not  controlled by  the graben   faults. Another kimberlite pipe, west of the Luangwa graben and 41 km north of Mpika, intrudes the lrumide tectonic belt and in southwestern Zambia,   northwest of   Livingstone. Five kimberlite pipes, which are covered with    an   overburden of   Kalahari   Group   sand,   are probably also emplaced within this same tectonic belt. A kimberlite located   165   km southwest of Mpika and another located 172 km northeast of Kaoma are emplaced within rocks of the younger Neoproterozoic   Katangan   tectonic   belt   and   three kimberlites east and southeast of Kaoma, intrude   the   Hook   Granite   Massif, which    is   post­ Katangan   in   age. The   outstanding diamondiferous kimberlite 255 km northwest of Kasama. intrudes  Mesoprotero- zoic  volcano-sedimentary rocks  outside   the  tectonic belts  in an area purported to  be underlain by  Archaean  craton  and named the Bangwelo Archon. However, there are no published age datings   to   support   the   presence   of Archaean craton and the whole of Zambia is apparently in an ‘off-craton’ position. Even  the 
Mesoproterozoic lrumide  tectonic belt  may  have  been tectonically   overprinted  during   the   Neoproterozoic Katangan Orogeny  and the   lack   of  any  ages  for   the  diamonds  constrains meaningful interpretation as to  their  origin. As  suggested,  the  lamproites and kimberlites could have sampled diamonds  from  below  the  adjacent Kalahari, Tanzania and Central African cratons   and  moved  them  to  the  surface   via  a  long inclined   complex    pipe    system. However, given  the  apparent  absence  of  diamonds in other mobile  belts adjacent  to cratons, e.g. the  Damaran  Belt  of   Namibia,   it is  more   probable  that   the diamonds  were formed below  the orogenic  belts  due to crustal thickening  following the orogeny  and its  subse­ quent depression into the diamond stability field.
  • Caledonia Mining Corporation has a joint venture agreement with Motapa Diamonds Inc (‘Motapa’) and BHP Billiton World Exploration Inc., together as the ‘BHP Entity’ on the Mulonga Plain and Kashiji Plain licenses in Western Zambia. Motapa is the project operator on behalf of the joint venture and has a 60% participating interest in the project, with Caledonia holding a 40% interest. BHP Billiton holds no interest in the project but retains a back in right on Motapa’s interest. In terms of the joint venture agreement, Caledonia’s interest will drop to 25% in the event that Motapa and BHP Billiton continue to sole fund the project to completion of a feasibility study.

Gold in Zambia

Gold Home

Gold deposits in Zambia (Source: Southern African Development Community, Mineral Resources Survey Programme No 4, 2001) 

Introduction

Although gold was mined much earlier, the first recorded production was in 1906 from the Sasare Mine located in the Eastern Province.There are more than 350 known gold occurrences in Zambia, most of which are hydrothermal in origin. The majority of these occurrences are located along an east­erly trending dislocation belt, known as the Mwembeshi Belt. This belt runs across the Central and Eastern Provinces. Only the more important deposits are dis­cussed here.

Stratigraphy and general geology

Basement Complex and Muva Supergroup rocks host the gold deposits which are structurally controlled, i.e. shear hosted. The Palaeoproterozoic Basement Complex includes metasediments, metavolcanics and intrusives. It comprises a variety of granulite, charnockite, quartzite, various amphibolite facies and paragneiss. The Mesoproterozoic Muva Supergroup comprises marbles, calc-silicates, graphititc schist, metapelite, amphibolite, quartz-feldsphatic gneiss, metavolcanics and metacon­glomerates. The rocks of this succession are widely exposed in the eastern, southern, central and northeast­ern parts of Zambia. In the northeastern part of Zambia this supergroup forms a large basin-like structure. The Basement and Muva successions have been intruded by granite, syenite, ultramafic rocks, carbonatite, quartz veins and pegmatites.
The Katanga Supergroup, comprising conglomerates, shale, sandstone, quartzite, limestone, dolomite and mar­ble, is distributed in the northwestern, northern, central and southern provinces. This Neoproterozoic succession hosts the world famous stratiform syngenetic copper min­eralisation, with its associated gold and cobalt. The Katanga Supergroup is overlain by Palaeozoic Karoo Supergroup sediments of marine origin. The Karoo is overlain by Cretaceous elastics and Quaternary sediments which include the Kalahari sands of western Zambia.

Gold mineralisation

Three types of deposits are found:
1.  Shear-hosted vein-type mineralisation closely asso­ciated with the east—west-trending Mwembeshi Belt
2.  Stratiform mineralisation in the form of dissemina­tions, associated with copper deposits
3. Placer deposits

Central Province
Three major groups of gold mines are distinguished: Mumbwa, Mumbwa-Kasempa and Kabwe
.
Mumbwa Group

Mineralisation at deposits in the Mumbwa Group occurs in the subshears of the Mwembeshi Belt.

Dunrobin (Luiri) Mine

Ownership in 2001: Reunion mining PLC 100 per cent Barnato Exploration Ltd production royal­ty of 2,0-6,5 per cent
Mining of gold-quartz veins at the Dunrobin (Luiri) Mine, located about 120 km west of Lusaka, began in the 1920s and the mine was worked intermittently until the 1960s. The major vein was between 0,5 m and 1,0 m wide, and 140 m long (Elevatorski, 1995). A total of 982,7 kg Au was produced. Dunrobin is situated on the nose of a large anticline in a paragneiss inlier. The gold is hosted by a banded iron formation with ionised gossan infilling. Oxidised ores consist of gossans of quartz, iron oxides, haematite, jarosite and goethite. Deeper ores are mostly of pyrite with some chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena and sphalerite. Generally the gold occurs in quartz or as inclusions in pyrite. Silicification and pyri­tisation of the wall rocks are the dominant alterations. The Dunrobin property was purchased by Reunion Mining from Barnato Exploration in 1996, with the main interest focused on a gossan (oxidised) ore body some 240 m long with an average thickness of 14 m. Production commenced in 1997. The ore body is being mined at a rate of 35 000 t/month (Crankshaw, 1996) from a single open pit with a maximum depth of 70 m and a stripping ratio of about 3,2:1. The mine will exploit gold reserves amounting to 1,13 Mt at a grade of 2,34 g/t.

Matala Mine

Ownership in 2001: Reunion mining PLC
Gold was produced from 1928-1934 at the Matala Mine, northeast of the Dunrobin Mine. Host rocks are silicified schists and quartzites of the Katanga Supergroup, having a high grade of regional metamor­phism. The ore body consists of quartz stockworks and tourmaline-cemented quartz breccias in the core of an anticlinal inlier (Elevatorski, 1995). Capping the ore body is a gossan of iron oxides. Pyrite is the dominant ore mineral, and constitutes 80-90 per cent of the sul¬phide minerals which also include arsenopyrite, marca¬site, sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite. Tourmaline and a greenish mica are fairly common Although some free gold occurs within the quartz, most of the gold occurs in pyritic fractures or on surfaces of the pyrite. The mine was closed several years before Dunrobin because development work had indicated inadequate tonnages of payable ore, and the current mining operations were meeting serious difficulties caused by faulting, and by the softness of the micaceous quartzite forming the hanging and foot walls. A total of 210 kg Au and a minor amount of silver was produced. In 1996 Reunion Mining purchased the mineral rights encompassing the old Matala Mine. Here, a resource of 833 000 t of ore, at a grade of 6,08 g/t, has been reported (Crankshaw, 1996). Tailings around the mine workings of approximately 34 000 t of ore, grading at 2 g/t Au, have been identified (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998).

Katuamenda Prospect

The Katuamenda prospect, located about 10 km east- southeast of Matala, comprises a vein 370 m long and, on average, 0,25 m thick. The vein is composed of quartz, siderite, ankerite and iron oxides. The average gold value is 8,32 g/t Au. Because of a high water table, ore tonnage (open pit) amounts to only 3 300 t (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998).

Jew Suss Prospect

This prospect is situated about 10 km east-northeast of the Matala Mine. The deposit comprises quartz veins and stringers distributed along a shear zone in schists and quartzites of the Paragneiss Group inlier. The mineralisation appears to have been structurally controlled by shearing, and has been observed for a strike length of 1,8 km. Individual veins, striking at about 100° and dipping steeply to the north, are up to 3 m wide. At the surface, the quartz contains much iron oxide after pyrite, and a few specks of malachite.

Kabwe Group

Mines in this group are scattered within the Mwomboshi and Luangwa River drainages, northeast of Lusaka. Gold mineralisation is confined to the the Basement Complex and appears to be related to a basic metavolcanic suite within granite gneiss.

Chetina Prospect

Ownership in 2001: Tan Range Exploration Corporation 100 per cent
The Chetina deposit was discovered in 1895. Siliceous and ferruginous veinlets occur in folded and fractured gneiss near granitic intrusions. Gold-bearing quartz and arsenopyrite are the ore minerals. Average grade was calculated at 3,1 g/t Au, and reserves up to 12-m depth are 10 000 t of ore, grading at 3,4 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998). Tan Range completed a first-phase exploration, mapping, sampling and drilling programme in 1996. Ground-magnetic surveys during 1997 on the 385 km' prospect returned several tar¬gets that were diamond drilled and soil sampled. Prospective open-pittable areas of 400x500-m were delineated and close-spaced drilling was to take place in 1998.
15.6.2.2 Iron Cap Mine
The Iron Cap Mine is located about 40 km southeast of Kabwe. There was a small production during 1953 from quartz reefs and iron formations in fractured chloritic schist, greenstones and quartzite. The quartz and banded iron-formation reef, striking east—west and dipping 45-70° to the north, is traceable over a distance of 960 m. The width varies from 4-6 m (eastern part) to 0,6-0,9 m (western part). The average grade is 1,58 g/t Au in the eastern part, 11 g/t Au in the western part, and 3,8 g/t Au from underground workings (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998). The reserves calculated up to 15-m depth, with an average reef thickness of 1,5 m, are about 64 800 t of ore, grading at 2,2 g/t Au.

Katie Prospect

Mineralisation consists of thin (a few centimetres wide), iron-stained gold-bearing quartz lenses that follow the foliation of the bedrock (sandy micaceous schists), a 1,2-1,8-m-wide gold-bearing dyke and a series of thin, cross-cutting gold-bearing quartz veins or stringers. The dyke appears to be the most important gold-bearing unit. Host rocks are micaceous quartzite interbedded with quartz-mica schist. The prospect was not actively explored in 1999 and has unknown reserve estimation.

Velocity Mine

Some gold was recovered during 1913-1924 from the Velocity Mine, located about 60 km east-southeast of Mkushi. Gold mineralisation is confined to hard, sheared quartzite, contained within an unmineralised granular, gently dipping quartzite, and within infilling veinlets of crystalline quartz and specular haematite. In 1963, Charterland Exploration mapped and channel sampled the mine shafts, winzes, drives and crosscuts. The high¬est values recorded were 8,9 g/t and 9,5 g/t Au. The mine has an unknown reserve estimate, with mineralisation fairly continuous at 3,1 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998).

Mumbwa-Kasempa Group

In the northern part, the area extends from the Musonwedzi-Dongwe River confluence to the Lunga River, while in the southern part it lies to the north of, and within, the big bend of the Kafue River. Gold occur-rences of this group are confined to the Kundelungu Group of the Katanga Supergroup.

Fanafuti Prospect

A limited area related to a 120-cm-wide vein of quartz is heavily mineralised with haematite and magnetite, and has traces of malachite and azurite. The outcrop is only 2 m in diameter. Three samples from this deposit gave results of 4,0; 3,1 and 1,9 g/t Au (Zambia Survey Department, 1998). Grades of haematite-bearing boulders at the top are quite high (about 8 g/t Au)
.
Matumba Prospect

Matumba Prospect is located 300 m west of Lunga River. Trenching has exposed over 30 quartz veins at the foot of a quartzite ridge. The veins are small and lenticular, striking southwest and dipping 20-45° to the northwest within a soft argillaceous schist. Most of the veins are ferruginous and many carry small amounts of gold.

Shakorota Prospect

At Shakorota Prospect, quartz veins containing mala-chite and chrysocolla intersect soft argillaceous sand-stone, with a few interbeds of shale. Two samples gave results of 6,5 g/t and 4,5 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998).

Woodpecker Prospect

Veins and veinlets of mineralised quartz, parallel to schist or slate country-rock bedding, occur at Wood-pecker Prospect. Trenching, pitting and three shafts exposed a quartz vein with a maximum width of 0,45 m over a length of approximately 45 m. It is very irregular and contains tourmaline needles, iron oxides, haematite and malachite staining. It also has an abundance of rusty cavities indicating that pyrite may be present at depth. The average grade obtained was 12,4 g/t Au.

Lusaka Province

Gold deposits and occurrences are in two groups: Lusaka-Zambezi and Rufunsa.

Rufunsa Group

Rufunsa is about 140 km east of Lusaka. Auriferous veins cut basic metavolcanics and amphibolite near older gneissic granite.

Chakwenga Mine

About 62 kg (2 000 oz) Au were recovered in the 1940s at the Chakwenga Mine, located about 55 km south of Rufunsa. Several quartz veins, up to 2 m wide, occur in schist and amphibolite of the Basement Complex. Mineralisation extends over a strike length of up to 250 m. Reserves are estimated at 20 000 t, grading 6,3-7,9 g/t (Kamona, 1994).

Jessie Mine

Ownership in 2001: Consolidated African Mining Corporation 100 per cent
The Jessie Mine was discovered in 1913, and about 473 kg gold were recovered during 1915-1945 from two ore bodies which consisted of 10-60-cm-wide quartz veins at right angles to the surrounding graphitic schist and quartzite. Most of the gold was mined from the oxi¬dised zones of the veins, which also contained specular-haematite, malachite, bismuth and native copper. The ore grade in 1945 was 3,1 g/t Au. In addition to gold,about 81 kg Ag were produced between 1914 and 1945. In 1998/99 a surface-sampling programme, seeking possible parallel structures and extensions along strike, was to be implemented.

Kaurashishi Mountain Prospects


Quartz veins occur both on the western and southeastern slopes of Kaurashishi Mountain, located about 45 km southeast of Rufunsa. The deposit consists of large veins concordant to the surrounding micaceous schist. One quartz vein, 122 m long by 3 m wide, graded 4,6 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998). A sec¬ond vein, with an undetermined length and a width of 2,4 to 3 m, gave an average grade of 3,7 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998). However, gold values average about 3,1 g/t Au. The gold-quartz veins contain tourmaline.

Moiya Mine


This mine is located about 55 km south of Rufunsa. Auriferous quartz veins and veinlets bearing irregular gold distribution are associated with haematite and spec-ularite in chloritic schist in contact with altered vol-canics. Maximum grades of 140 g/t Au were recorded, but an average value of 7,6 g/t Au was indicated (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998). Further exploration work is required for reliable grade and resource estimations.

Lusaka-Zambezi Group


Mines in this group are located in an area extending east of Lusaka and south to the Zambezi River.

Chumbwe Mine


About 82 kg Au were recovered during 1943-1953 at the Chumbwe Mine located in the Leopards Hill area, about 65 km southeast of Lusaka. Ore bodies consist of fer-ruginous quartz veins up to 0,9 m wide (Elevatorski, 1995). Host rocks are quartz-sericite-biotite schist (Kamona, 1994) of the Katanga Supergroup. Free gold occurs in quartz, in areas rich in magnetite. Haematite and specularite are common

Mapompo Prospect


Gold is found in gravels and sands along the Funswe River at several localities. It is believed that there are 3 000 t Au-bearing material (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998).

Chaiyinda Prospect


Stratiform gold mineralisation is disseminated in banded iron formations at Chaiyinda, where the gold occurs within a 1-m-thick quartz-magnetite-haematite iron formation interlayered with quartzite, schist and amphibolite. This deposit is located about 40 km south-southeast of Lusaka. Gold occurs as submicroscopic inclusions in magnetite and quartz, and is generally concentrated along margins of sheared quartz bands and near fold noses within the iron formation. Samples from old work-15.7.1.3 Kaurashishi Mountain Prospects

Quartz veins occur both on the western and southeastern slopes of Kaurashishi Mountain, located about 45 km southeast of Rufunsa. The deposit consists of large veins concordant to the surrounding micaceous schist. One quartz vein, 122 m long by 3 m wide, graded 4,6 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998). A second vein, with an undetermined length and a width of 2,4 to 3 m, gave an average grade of 3,7 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998). However, gold values average about 3,1 g/t Au. The gold-quartz veins contain tourmaline.

Moiya Mine


This mine is located about 55 km south of Rufunsa. Auriferous quartz veins and veinlets bearing irregular gold distribution are associated with haematite and spec-ularite in chloritic schist in contact with altered vol-canics. Maximum grades of 140 g/t Au were recorded, but an average value of 7,6 g/t Au was indicated (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998). Further exploration work is required for reliable grade and resource estimations.

Lusaka-Zambezi Group


Mines in this group are located in an area extending east of Lusaka and south to the Zambezi River.

Chumbwe Mine


About 82 kg Au were recovered during 1943-1953 at the Chumbwe Mine located in the Leopards Hill area, about 65 km southeast of Lusaka. Ore bodies consist of fer-ruginous quartz veins up to 0,9 m wide (Elevatorski, 1995). Host rocks are quartz-sericite-biotite schist (Kamona, 1994) of the Katanga Supergroup. Free gold occurs in quartz, in areas rich in magnetite. Haematite and specularite are common

Mapompo Prospect


Gold is found in gravels and sands along the Funswe River at several localities. It is believed that there are 3 000 t Au-bearing material (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998).

Chaiyinda Prospect


Stratiform gold mineralisation is disseminated in banded iron formations at Chaiyinda, where the gold occurs within a 1-m-thick quartz-magnetite-haematite iron for¬mation interlayered with quartzite, schist and amphibolite. This deposit is located about 40 km south-southeast of Lusaka. Gold occurs as submicroscopic inclusions in magnetite and quartz, and is generally concentrated along margins of sheared quartz bands and near fold noses within the iron formation. Samples from old workings average 1,86 g/t Au in the iron formations. The banded iron formation is estimated to contain 156 900 t of ore grading at 5 g/t Au (Kamona, 1994).

Kampokola Prospect


Kampokola Prospect is located on the northern side of the Kampokola River. Siliceous mica schist, striking east—west contains mineralisation traceable for 800 m. Mineralisation consists of copper stained ferruginous schists with small gold-bearing quartz veins. Surface quartz-vein samples yielded 3,1 g/t Au, while at 11-m depth samples gave results of between 2,2 g/t and 57 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998).

Lusaka Gold Lineament


Ten gold occurrences are aligned along a north-north-west-striking lineament along the core of the Lusaka belt, 1 km east of the Lusaka dolomite thrust contact. Mineralisation occurs predominantly in veins and veinlets of quartz, with variable amounts of copper and gold. Most gold values are low and those of interest are over narrow widths, and are probably surface enriched.

Eastern Province

This area lies between the Luangwa River and the Malawi and Mozambique borders.

Petauke-Chipata-Lundazi Group


The gold occurrences of the Petauke-Chipata-Lundazi Group are confined to the extensively deformed and migmatised rocks of the Basement Complex, within which volcanics are intercalated. Mineralisation is hosted in quartz veins which are small and narrow. Grades are poor in depth.

Sasare Mine


The Sasare Mine was active as early as 1902. Two ore bodies, East and West, have been mined, with ores grading 8,1 g/t Au. The mine is on the south slope of Lungamondi Mountain, about 45 km northeast of Petauke. Two ferruginous quartz ore bodies occur in folded graphitic-micaceous schist separated by massive quartzites (Elevatorski, 1995). Mineralised veins are 1-3 m wide. Host rocks are intensely deformed, cut by faults and shears. In the oxidised zone, gold is associated with iron oxides. Sulfide ores contain gold and bismuthinite as coatings and inclusions in pyrite. Associa¬ted minerals are chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, marcasite, galena and sphalerite. The iron-rich quartz veins dip steeply and are confined to schist units. Around the veins are pyritised zones, further enveloped by zones with bleaching, silicification and sericitisation. The deposit was worked by three shafts to a depth of 90 m.

Cymric Mine


Disseminated gold mineralisation occurs at the Cymric Mine, located about 60 km southeast of Chipata near the border with Mozambique. The gold is sparsely disseminated in a hornblende-chlorite schist with the best values in an altered siliceous rock. There was 'a small production in the 1930s. Also in this area, some of the streams have been worked for alluvial gold.

Fitcheanie Reef


The Fitcheanie Reef Prospect is located west of Umsepadzi River and 2 km southeast of the Lutembwe Reef. The reef is exposed in a trench within quartz-schist country rock. A basic dyke crops out nearby. The iron-stained quartz reef strikes 030°. Assay results obtained from the deposit are 14,6 g/t and 10,3 g/t Au (Zambia Geological Survey Department, 1998).

Northern Region

Musola


About midway between Serenje and Mpika, alluvial gold was found in ,the Musola stream. This location is about 105 km southwest of Mpika. Vein-type occurrences are near the alluvial deposits. Gold-quartz stringers, with considerable iron oxides, occur in fractured schist, quartzite and conglomerates (Elevatorski, 1995)
.
Chela River


Alluvial gold and cassiterite occur in gravels and sands of the Chela River, a tributary of the Chambeshi River. Small quantities of tin and gold have been recovered in an area about 60 km south of Mbala. Sources of the alluvial gold are believed to be conglomerates of the Palaeoproterozoic Mporokoso Group.

Senga Hill


In the 1930s, low-grade gold values were discovered in streams and quartz-pebble conglomerates at Senga Hill. The gold concentrations are in conglomeratic fluvial sediments of the Mporokoso Group and are in the range of 0,09-0,5 g/t Au (Elevatorski, 1995). The gold and haematite were deposited in conglomerates and sand¬stones by detrital sedimentary processes in a braided- stream environment. Small quantities of pyrrhotite, cassiterite and tourmaline are also present.

Exploration Trends

Lutembwe


Ownership in 2001: First Quantum Minerals Ltd 100 per cent The Lutembwe property covers 900 km2. Alluvial gold deposits were first discovered in the Lutenbwe River in 1911. Auriferous pyritic veins were discovered in 1912. Host rocks are fractured and folded granulite, with tuff and lava intercalations, and granitic intrusions. The veins are on average 1 m wide. Production has been less than 15 kg. In 1997/98 first-phase reconnaissance was underway and the results were expected to be reviewed in mid-1998.

Darg


Ownership in 2001: Consolidated African Mining Corporation

option to acquire 100 per cent The old Darg Mine operated between 1916 and 1922, producing gold as a by-product of the bismuth opera-tions. The gold is hosted in a quartz-vein system to a depth of at least 36 m. Consolidated African had an option to acquire the 1 076-km2 exploration licence until February 2001. In 1998/99 initial work was to include trench and pit sampling around previous workings, along with a targeted geochemical programme.

Chongwe


Ownership in 2001: Equinox Resources NL 100 per cent

AngloGold Ltd earning 70 per cent
A major exploration programme was carried out 80 km east of Lusaka in late 1997, as copper and gold occur-rences had been identified, in association with magnetic anomalies One quartz-vein sample returned a 7,6 g/t Au value, but the gold grades were otherwise very low (Resource Information Unit, 1999). First-pass rock, soil and drainage sampling was completed over this area with results expected in late-1998.

Kadola


Ownership in 2001: Caledonia Mining Corporation 100 per cent

Caledonia Mining holds three exploration licences north of Lusaka, which covers 6 099 km2 of the southern extension of the Zambian Copper Belt. Gold-mineralisa-tion occurrences within the licences include Eureka, Chipepo, Mwirwa and Mpongwe. In 1998 exploration had been undertaken on all four these properties (Resource Information Unit, 1999).

Karibarembi


Ownership in 2001: First Quantum Minerals Ltd 100 per cent The 310-km2 Karibarembi property is underlain by folded quartzite, sandstone and mudstone of Late Precambrian age which are intruded by granites. Results from an exten-sive soil-sampling programme, and a limited reverse-circulation drilling programme, during the 1990s strongly suggest potential for a high-grade, moderate-tonnage copper-gold-cobalt deposit (Resource Information Unit, 1999). At this time a number of soil anomalies and new mineralised showings remained to be tested and were to be the focus of a future work programme.

Bulala Hills


Ownership in 2001: Murchison United NL 80 per cent Private interests 20 per cent

This 1 100-km2 prospecting licence, 120 km west of Lusaka, contains a major shear zone and a number of discrete magnetic anomalies targeted for gold minerali-sation. Following a review of its Zambian interests in early 1997, the company planned to joint venture or sell the tenement.

 Itezhi-Tezhi


Ownership in 2001: Equinox Resources NL 100 per cent AngloGold Ltd earning 70 per cent

The licence area is located about 240 km west of Lusaka. Numerous iron occurrences and alteration zones carry anomalous copper-gold values. Drilling carried out in 1997 failed to locate mineralisation. In 1998 Equinox completed geological mapping and rock, soil and drainage sampling, with assays expected in late 1998.

Serenje


Ownership in 2001: Equinox Resources NL 100 per cent Anglo American Corporation of South Africa Ltd earning 70 per cent

In 1997 a quartz-vein rock sample graded 5,9 g/t Au. During the first part of the 1998 field season, Serenje was the main focus of exploration. An extensive 38 100¬km-line, 400-m spaced, airborne magnetic and radio-metric survey was completed over most of the project area, with final data expected in late 1998.

Kafue Park


Ownership in 2001: Equinox Resources NL 100 per cent

AngloGold Ltd earning 70 per cent
The area, 220 km west-northwest of Lusaka, has iron occurrences and alteration zones associated with major regional structures, some of which carry anomalous cop¬per-gold values. The licence area was flown by a detailed helicopter-borne magnetic survey. Three targets were identified and reverse-circulation programme tested these magnetite-alteration anomalies in Septem-ber 1997. Drilling failed to locate mineralisation. In 1998, Equinox completed geological mapping and rock, soil and drainage sampling, with assays expected in late 1998.

Kasempa


Ownership in 2001: Phelps Dodge Exploration Corporation 100 per cent

Exploration is concentrated on the Kundelungu Group of sedimentary rocks, around the margins of granite and syenite intrusions. Magnetite-haematite-pyrite mineralisation occurs in carbonatised breccias on the sediment- granite contacts (Resource Information Unit, 1999). At mid-1998 drilling had covered about a quarter of the prospective targets in the 3 750-km2 concession.

Mazabuka


Ownership in 2001: Murchison United NL 80 per cent Private interests 20 per cent

The 385-km2 prospecting licence, 60 km southwest of Lusaka, was centred on a complex cross-cutting magnetic anomaly targeted for copper-gold mineralisation. Following a review of its Zambian interests in early 1997, the company planned to joint venture or sell the tenement.

Lufwanyama


Ownership in 2001: Equinox Resources NL 100 per cent Anglo American Corporation of South Africa Ltd earning 70 per cent

In 1998 a substantial ground follow-up programme of targets, generated from various geophysical datasets, was being undertaken with field work including grid- ding, geochemical sampling, ground geophysical sur-veys of various types and geological mapping.

 Nchoncho

Ownership in 2001: First Quantum Minerals Ltd 100 per cent The 800-km2 property, 200 km east of Lusaka, is situat¬ed in Proterozoic-age Basement Complex gneiss cut by extensive, steeply north-dipping shear zones. These shear zones are filled by quartz-tourmaline vein systems which pinch and swell along strike and range up to 2 m thick (Resource Information Unit, 1999). Limited work has been done on the property since its acquisition. An extensive mapping programme was planned for 1998 to test the mineral potential.

Conclusion

Exploration along the Mwembeshi Belt may be worth while. Several occurrences are located along this easter¬ly trending dislocation belt, but not much is known about them — with the exception of Dunrobin and Matala, where exploration has been carried out by Reunion Mining. According to the Geological Survey Depart-ment of Zambia, gold prospects, which may also be eco-nomically viable, include the Velocity, Katie, Chetina, Iron Cap, Kamano, Kamboka, Lutembwe and Cymric deposits. The Chaiyinda deposit also warrants investiga¬tion as an open-pit, heap-leach possibility. In the Northern Province, gold occurrences near Serenje and Mbala might be economically workable.

More than 300 gold occurrences have been recorded but most are only prospects; largest historical producers are Dunrobin (990kg) and Matala (225kg) in the Mumbwa area, Jessie (390kg) in the Rufunsa area, and Sasare (390kg) in eastern Zambia. Dunrobin was re-opened by Reunion Mining in 1997 as an open-pit, heap-leach operation and is producing 50kg gold per month. The majority of the deposits are lode-type bodies associated with the Mwembeshi Shear Zone and related syntectonic intrusions. Significant gold mineralization also occurs, variously with copper and uranium, in major thrust zones near the base of the Katanga succession Minor palaeo-placer gold has also been reported in the Mporokoso Group in the Bangweulu Block.

History
Gold mining in the Mumbwa region started in 1927 and continued through until 1941. Mining focused on an iron-oxide gossan at Dunrobin, which was developed initially by shallow open cut methods, and then by underground mining on a quartz vein, to a depth of 75 m below the surface.

The total production recorded from this period of operation was 32,000 oz at an average grade of approximately 10 g/t Au. Mining at Matala began in 1928, with a reported grade from initial mining of 49,5 oz of gold per tonne ore from underground operations.
  • Dunrobin mine re-opened in 1997 with a planned output of 65 kg of gold by the end of that year.
  • Aim Resources (LSE:AIMR.L) is exploring the Mumbwa Copper-Gold project located in south-central Zambia. AIM is earning a 70% interest in the project from BHP Billiton. Billiton explored the Mumbwa licence area during the mid to late 1990's. The Kitumba region contains a large, and in the areas tested so far, low-grade copper or copper-gold bearing, breccia system. The mineralization at Mumbwa is associated with large–scale highly variable magmatic-hydrothermal iron oxide breccia complexes that display evidence of multiple brecciation and Aim reported significant mineralization from drilling in May, 2007.
  • Excalibur Mining has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Zamunda Minerals for the development of a joint venture (JV) gold copper project, in western Zambia. Zamunda holds the rights to the G&C project’s preproduction 620 km2 gold copper mining lease. Excalibur and Zamunda intended to incorporate a 55:45 JV company, Sinco, to manage the project. The transaction was subject to conditions precedent, including necessary approvals, the completion of due diligence and shareholder approval. Excalibur, which is listed on the ASX, would reimburse Zamunda up to $350 000 for development costs it had incurred so far, and issue 50-million deferred shares upon achieving specified milestones. The news comes as Excalibur embarked on due diligence for the acquisition of Buffalo Group, which had the rights to buy an 80% stake in gold prospecting licences in southern Zambia.
  • Luiri Gold Ltd (Canadian) Luiri Hills Project area is adjacent to the ground held by BHP Billiton in joint venture with other parties. Prospecting has been focussed on the the Dunrobin and Matala mines and immediate surrounding areas. The new mineral resource estimate for Luiri Gold is 108,000 oz of gold in 1,62 million tonnes grading 2,1 g/t in the indicated category, and 173,000 oz of gold in 1,3 million tonnes grading 4,1 g/t in the inferred category and complies with the Australan JORC Code. On December 11, 2007, Luiri Gold announced a C$3 million private placement to support its exploration program at Luiri Hill project in Zambia, and to pursue acquisitions. It was reported in July 2013 that Luiri Gold had established a probable ore reserve of one-million tons at 2.7 g/t for 87 000 oz of gold at the Dunrobin deposit of its Liuri Hills gold project, in Zambia. A recent feasibility study considered open pit mining of the deposit at an average cash cost of $827/oz and a gold price of $1 225/oz, as well as the processing of 200 000 t/y of ore by crushing, grinding and cyanide leaching. Luiri Gold expected construction of the Dunrobin mining and processing plant to start by the end of 2013.
  • Zambezi Resources Limited is exploring the gold occurrences at Chakwenga, Moiya and Kangaluwi in the Chakwenga region, southern Zambia, which resulted in 5 gold projects.


Substantial resources of iron have been identified, occurring primarily as sedimentary ironstones in the lower-Katanga Mine Series successions of central and western Zambia. Total resources of more than 900Mt with an iron content around 50% have been provisionally estimated, with some individual deposits up to 200Mt in size. Small, high-grade skarn and replacement deposits are associated with Pan-African felsic and mafic intrusions that have penetrated the lower Katanga succession in western Zambia, particularly around the Hook Granite Complex, but such deposits have rarely been fully evaluated.



Occurrences are numerous but mostly small, occurring as tabular, probably stratiform exhalative, deposits within Basement and Muva sequences, and as supergene enrichments, either capping low-grade sedimentary accumulations or concentrated within sub-vertical fractures of limited vertical extent.

Nickel

Orthomagmatic nickel occurrences are known in the Basement sequences east and south of Lusaka and include one near Mpala Gorge which may be a faulted remnant of Zimbabwe's Great Dyke. Sediment-hosted nickel deposits in Mwashia and Mine Series rocks of north-western Zambia are associated with gabbroic intrusions and often show evidence of hydrothermal enrichment. Minor platinum group elements are produced as a by-product of copper-refining on the major Copperbelt mines.
  • Albidon Ltd has been exploring the Munali Nickel Project, located 60 kilometres south of Lusaka , the capital of Zambia. The Enterprise nickel deposit at Munali contains resources (as announced on 31 May 2006) of 8,0 million t at 1,4% Ni and 0,9 g/t PGM containing 109,000t of Ni and 223,000 oz of PGM (at a 0,7% Ni cutoff) of which 6,9 million t t at 1,4% Ni is classified as Indicated Mineral Resource.The project is designed to produce approximately 8,500 tonnes per annum of nickel in concentrate from a 900,000 t per annum underground mining operation. In addition to the resource drilling at Enterprise , a systematic approach to drilling of the Munali Intrusion has been adopted. This had success with the discovery of the Voyager prospect approximately 750m north of Enterprise. The geological setting of the mineralization intersected along the southwestern side of the Munali Intrusion is consistent, with the same controls on nickel sulphides over the entire length of the intrusion (over 2,5km). On 8 December 2006, Jinchuan , China's largest nickel refiner, said it had agreed to invest about $100m in the Munali Nickel project and has signed an off-take agreement for the nickel produced from Munali.
  • Zambezi Nickel Ltd is exploring the Mitaba Hill, Mitaba Hill East, Mitaba West and Paulwi prospects, previously explored, trenched and drilled by Zamanglo in the 1960’s. The Mitaba project occupies a total strike length of 11 kilometres, within which occur at least two main complexes of successive ultramafic komatiite lava flows, 3,3 kilometres apart. The pear-shaped Paulwi intrusion is interpreted to have been gravity-differentiate into a gabbroic upper portion of 3,000 metres depth and basal serpentinised dunite portion of 2,000 metres depth. Zambezi Nickel has changed its name to Lithic Metals & Energy, the firm said on 26 September, 2007. The Aim stock exchange trading code will change from ZNI to LMY effective immediately. “The change of name reflects the diversification of Lithic Metals & Energy into the mineral energy sector and underscores the aspirations of the board of directors and myself to develop the company into a major mining house,” MD Jim Kerr said in a statement.

Oil and Natural Gas

Two exploration programmes by Mobil and Placid Oil between 1986 and 1991 failed to discover oil but, of two boreholes within the Luangwa Rift Valley, one was terminated before intersecting the most favourable reservoir horizons. Considerable thicknesses of littoral and continental sediments underlain by carbonaceous rocks with oil-generating potential are present within the Karoo-age graben of both the Luangwa and Mid-Zambezi Valleys.

Zambia announced in October, 2006, that samples from 12 sites have proved positive for oil and gas in tests conducted in Germany. The discoveries were made in western Zambia, near the border with Angola in the two districts of Chavuma and Zambezi.

Source: BBC


  •  Aim-listed African Consolidated Resources (ACR) has signed a joint-venture (JV) agreement with an Australian-based exploration company Rare Earth International (REI) to explore ACR’s Nkombwa Hill rare-earths and phosphate project, in Zambia.

    The 720-km2 exploration project was expected to contain a large potential phosphate resource, as well as light rare-earth elements (REEs).

    REI would, in terms of the agreement, spend at least $750 000 over the next two years to define an inferred resource to a Joint Ore Reserve Committee- (Jorc-) compliant standard for the project, in order to earn a 30% stake.

    It would then spend a further $600 000 over an 18-month period to define an indicated resource to Jorc-compliant standard, the completion of which would lead to an increase in its stake to 50%.

    ACR would then have the option to cofund the completion of a prefeasibility study and a bankable feasibility study, with each party maintaining a 50% interest in the project.

    However, if it decided not to provide cofunding for the feasibility studies, REI would eventually boost its stake in the project to 75% by providing all the funding.

    Corporate finance services provider Ambrian Capital said in a research note that the signing of the JV partnership was a “savvy” move, as it would allow the company to diversify out of its primary country of operation, Zimbabwe.

    Further, Ambrian pointed out that while the project’s focus would be phosphate, for which there was plenty of demand in Africa, it would also bring in more experienced partners to focus on the development of the more lucrative REEs.

    “There is currently a significant focus on REEs following recent moves by China, the world’s largest supplier or REEs, to restrict exports,” it added.

    China plans to allow only a few State-owned enterprises to mine rare-earth metals, as part of a campaign to combat illegal mining and to consolidate its reserves.

    Worldwide demand for REEs, which are used in the manufacturing of hybrid cars, superalloys used in the defence industry, cellphones, large wind turbines, missiles and computer monitors, is on the increase, but the majority of the world’s supply, 95%, was still produced by China.

    Global demand for REEs was expected to exceed 200 000 t/y by 2014, while a global shortfall of 40 000 t/y was expected by 2015, the US-based Institute for the Analysis of Global Security pointed out in a March report.

    This has led to companies relooking at old dormant REEs projects.

    Australia’s Lynas Corporation was developing one of the largest REE projects outside China, namely the Mount Weld carbonatite in Western Australia, while US-based Molycorp Minerals had an interest in another large REE resource.

    TSX Venture Exchange-listed Great Western Minerals Group also announced earlier this month that it had been granted new-order mining rights for the Steemkampskraal monazite project, in South Africa’s Western Cape province. (Source: miningweekly.com)

Tin

Small quantities of cassiterite have been recovered from complex quartz-muscovite-feldspar pegmatites of probable Irumide age in the Choma-Kalomo area in southern Zambia. Columbite-tantalite has also been extracted in very minor quantities.
Tungsten: Wolframite has been noted in pegmatite of the Choma Tin Belt, and lode-type scheelite-bismuth mineralization is associated with a two-mica granite of early Lufilian age at Unda Unda, 80km east of Lusaka.
  • Allied Energy Corporation on October 31, 2007, entered into a Memorandum of Understanding to acquire Starfield Minerals Ltd or its assets. Starfield Minerals Ltd. owns a tin and tantalite deposit (the "Starfield Mine") in the vicinity of Choma, Republic of Zambia. Production at the Starfield Mine is currently conducted by artisanal workers using hand-labour.

Uranium


Three important types of uranium occurrence have been recorded in Zambia: in Karoo sandstones; associated with the copper mineralization of the Copperbelt; and structurally controlled mineralization in the Basement domes of north-western Zambia. The Karoo occurrences comprise presumed detrital concentrations, up to 1000ppm U, in the Escarpment Grit Formation, and fracture-controlled autunite-torbernite-pitchblende in the same arenitic units of the Mid-Zambezi Rift. Uranium occurrences associated with the Copperbelt mineralization variously consist of pitchblende, coffinite, and brannerite, or meta-torbernite and other secondary minerals concentrated near the base of the copper mineralization or within the footwall rocks immediately underlying the orebodies. A total of 120,000kg of U3O8 was produced from Nkana Mine in the period 1957-1959. Uranium mineralization in the Basement domes is variously accompanied by copper and gold and almost invariably occurs in kyanite-bearing schists which are now known to represent major thrust zones developed along the

Basement-Katanga contact and propagated up-sequence northwards and eastwards. The Lumwana Malundwe deposit in the Mwombezhi Dome, as an example, contains some 4000t of U3O8, in addition to at least 19.5Mt copper ore at 1.4% Cu and minor gold.

The Kariba valley prospects were originally identified in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s by AGIP SA following first-pass drill testing of uranium anomalies defined through radiometric surveying.
  • OmegaCorp Ltd (Australian) is being taken over by Canadian outfit Denison Mines in a $170 million deal. Uranium projects include the Mavuzi Project in Mozambique, the Kariba Uranium Project in Zambia, the Mkuju Power Project in Tanzania and the Zambezi Valley Project in Zimbabwe with geological extension into Mozambique. The Kariba Uranium Project comprises a single prospecting licence covering 2,521 km2 and is situated in the Southern Province of Zambia about 200 km south of Lusaka and immediately north of Lake Kariba in Zambia . It has an 11 million pound (5000 t) JORC compliant resource estimate which includes only two of the five known prospects in the project (Mutanga and Dibwe).
  • Energy Ventures Ltd (Australian) announced that its 79%-owned African Energy Resources had completed a program of airborne radiometric surveys on portions of its uranium projects in Zambia, which identified 15 uranium anomalies requiring further evaluation. The surveying was done around its Njame prospect. The Njame North prospect and the projects at Chirundu, in the Kariba Valley and Luano Valley areas, were subject to the option and farm-in agreement between Energy Ventures and nickel exploration company Albidon, under which African Energy had the right to earn up to a 70% equity interest in these projects.
  • Equinox Minerals Limited (TSX and ASX symbol: EQN) commenced a bankable feasibility study in March, 2007, on the uranium resources which occur within, and adjacent to, the Lumwana Copper Project orebodies that are being developed in the North Western province of Zambia. Uranium within the Malundwe and Chimiwungo copper deposits occurs as discrete uranium-enriched zones that will be separately mined during the copper mining operation. Lumwana Uranium Mineral Resources have been estimated at 9.5 million tonnes grading 0.093% U3O8 Indicated, and 2.6 million tonnes of 0.042% U3O8 Inferred, for a combined total of 21.4 million pounds of contained U3O8. The Lumwana uranium resource has been estimated using a 0.01% uranium cut-off grade and is consistent with JORC/NI43-101 requirements.
  • Albidon Ltd reported that soil sampling and surveys have confirmed the presence of uranium anomalies at the Gwabe prospect in the Chirundu joint venture adding that drilling at the prospect is scheduled to start in May 2007. The company said the Gwabe uranium anomaly was identified by an airborne radiometric survey completed in December 2006 and Albidon's joint venture partner African Energy Resources has completed a program of hand-held scintillometer and geochemical soil sampling across the anomaly. Albidon completed drilling at the Njame prospect in the Chirundu joint venture (JV), in Zambia, the company said in October, 2007. Albidon, which formed a JV with African Eagle, said that an infill-drilling programme as part of the prefeasiblity study had started. The drilling programme had been designed to increase confidence in the mineral resource to JORC inferred resource status. On completion of the Njame infill programmes, both the RC and the diamond drill rigs would be mobilised to the Gwabe prospect, to undertake infill drilling for resource upgrade and to provide samples for metallurgical test work. Thereafter, the rigs would return to Njame to continue exploration drilling to test for extensions to the prospect. Albidon confirmed in January, 2008, the presence of a new zone of sandstone-hosted uranium mineralisation at its Njame East uranium project in Zambia. Results were said to include the highest-grade drill intersections recorded at the project to date. The company added that additional drilling would also take place at Njame East to define the extent of potentially economic mineralisation.
  • African Energy Resources has spent $8 million on its exploration projects with Albidon Mining in southern Zambia over the past three years.
  • Zambezi Resources Limited announced in May, 2007, that it had entered into an agreement with Zambezi Nickel Ltd to embark on a joint venture (JV) on its Oryx uranium prospect, in Zambia, in terms of which Zambezi Nickel could acquire the project’s uranium rights. Zambezi Nickel could also earn equity interest in the uranium rights of Zambezi Resources’ Mpande, Rufunasa, Mulungushi, and Chumbwe licences, and had a commitment to spend $3-million on exploration. It could raise its equity to a controlling 51% if it spent $5-million. The JV would allow Zambezi Resources to keep its focus on copper and gold projects. Zambezi Resources announced in September, 2007, that it had signed a letter of intent with Rio Tinto which allows Rio Tinto to earn in to certain uranium mineral rights at Mulofwe Dome. Under the terms agreed, Rio Tinto will commit to spend US$ 1 million minimum to assess the uranium mineralisation over approximately 1,250 square kilometres of the Mulofwe prospect in Zambia. However, the Bermuda-registered company also said Rio Tinto may elect to spend an additional US$ 5 million to earn 51 pct of the project's rights, in which case the parties have agreed to incorporate a joint venture.
    'Rio Tinto will be the manager of the exploration program and any joint venture entered into,' a release from Zambezi said.
    Once Rio Tinto has earned a 51 pct stake in the project, Zambezi may elect to dilute its stake to 20 pct in which case Rio Tinto may hold up to 80 pct in the project by completing a bank feasibility study.
    Zambezi also said it may elect to convert its interest to a 2.5 pct net smelter royalty 'at any time after Rio Tinto has earned its 51 pct share of the project.'
  • African Eagle Resources plc said in September, 2007, it is in discussions with mid-tier uranium companies to explore and develop its portfolio of uranium properties in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique. African Eagle has six projects in Zambia and Tanzania and a further two projects across eight licences under application in Mozambique and Tanzania.The company set out to develop its uranium portfolio in order to make its potential attractive to established uranium explorers.
    Most of the company's uranium deposits have had some previous exploration - ranging from airborne to geological surveys and the initial results were positive. Several identified uranium anomalies are ready for further exploration.

Zinc

Carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb ore has been mined from the Kabwe deposit in central Zambia where 11Mt of ore averaged close to 25% Zn and 15% Pb. The stratabound mineralization comprises massive, breccia and replacement sulphides within carbonate rocks marking the transition from Lower Roan to Upper Roan. Similar styles of mineralization at the same stratigraphic position, some copper-rich, are evident throughout the Kabwe area and northwards to Kapiri Mposhi. Carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn has also been recorded in Lower Roan limestones in the Copperbelt and in lower Kundelungu rocks in western Zambia. Stratabound, probably exhalative, Cu-Zn-Pb deposits occur in Basement and Muva sequences of south-eastern Zambia.
  • Alberg Mining and Exploration, a South African company, has been selected to re-open the Kabwe zinc and lead mine, Reuters reported on January 7, 2008, citing a senior industry official. Joseph Chikolwa, the head of state-run ZCCM Investments Holdings, said unlisted Alberg would have the task of restarting Kabwe, one of the oldest mines in Zambia, which was abruptly shut in 1994 due to poor management and a lack of capital.
References


Economic geology of energy sources

Economic geology of nonmetal deposits

Economic geology of ore deposits

Economic geology, general

Economic geology, general, deposits

Economic geology, general, economics

Economic geology, geology of energy sources

Economic geology, geology of nonmetal deposits

Economic geology, geology of ore deposits