GeologyNickel sulphide mineralization, which is associated with pyroxenite sills, and gabbro-hosted mineralisation such as Phoenix, Selkirk and Tekwane, near Francistown.
The Phoenix mineralization is a co-magmatic sulphide deposit hosted by a meta-gabbroic intrusion. Mineralization is comprised of a series of stacked sub-parallel, sub-horizontal, discontinuous massive sulphide lenses, in association with meta-gabbro hosted disseminated sulphides. Mineralogically, the sulphide ore comprises on average 70% pyrrhotite, 20% pentlandite, and 10% chalcopyrite. The tenor of the massive sulphides can be as high as 8% nickel. The mineralization hosts significant Platinum Group Metals (PGM).
In its original form the Selkirk massive sulphide body, located 15 km south of Phoenix, was a shallow (25° to 35°) plunging zone of massive sulphide mineralization approximately 200m long, 100m wide and up to 20m thick. The massive sulphide ore body pinched out at 150m below surface. Mineralogically, the massive sulphide deposit was comprised of approximately 77% pyrrhotite, 10% pentlandite, 10% magnetite and 3% chalcopyrite, and graded approximately 2,6% nickel and 1,6% copper. The sulphide body is surrounded by lower tenor disseminated sulphide mineralization which is open ended down plunge and remains highly prospective.
- Bamangwato Concessions Limited or BCL (Botswana Government-30%) operates the Selebi-Phikwe mine consisting of Phikwe Central, South East Extension, Selebi North and Selebi.
- Albidon Ltd's Selebi-Phikwe Project comprises twenty contiguous Prospecting Licences covering approximately 17,466 sq km in the eastern part of the Central District of Botswana. The Project covers prospective ground to the west, south and east of the Selebi-Phikwe Nickel Mining District (>1 million t tonnes contained Ni) and includes numerous Ni-Cu occurrences, including the Lipadi Hill deposit. The project falls within the Exploration Cooperation Agreement signed with Western Mining Corporation (WMC) in October 2004, subsequently acquired by BHP Billiton. As part of this Agreement, WMC/BHP funded and operated the project during 2005, and BHP continued to do so in 2006. Albidon said in November, 2007, that it would start drilling at the Sunnyside and Kgwedi nickel prospects to provide an initial test of the coincident geophysical and geochemical targets, and, in particular, aim to assess whether the anomalies were caused by nickel mineralisation similar to that encountered in the 1970s drilling. The Sunnyside and Kgwedi prospects formed part of an 8 705 km2 tenement package held by Albidon to the south of Selebi-Phikwe district.
- LionOre (Canadian, TSX:LIM; AIM:LOR; ASX:LIM) has an 85% interest in Tati Nickel with the Government of Botswana holding the balance. Tati Nickel comprises the Phoenix open pit nickel mine and the Selkirk underground mine (on care and maintenance) and was formed in 1988. Mining commenced at the Selkirk underground mine in 1989 and at the Phoenix open pit in 1995. LionOre aquired an initial interest in 1996, which was increased to 85% in 2002 following the purchase of Anglo American's 44,5% interest. In 2005 Tati produced 8,581 t of nickel, 6,807 t of copper, 5,007 oz of platinum and 27,965 oz of palladium. LionOre produced 34,100 tonnes of payable nickel at a cost of $3,76 a pound, will increase output to 44,300 tonnes in 2007 at a cash cost of $3,52. It has a forecast price for 2007 of $7,35 a pound. A pre-feasibility study showed potential for an opencast mine at Selkirk to produce 20,000 tonnes of nickel a year for 13 years.
- Discovery Metals Ltd (Australian) secured the NE Botswana Nickel Project, through a farm-in deal with Falconbridge Exploration (Botswana) Pty Ltd. This project surrounds BCL Limited's three producing nickel sulphide mines in the Selebi-Phikwe region of Botswana. Discovery can earn up to 80% of the project for exploration expenditure of AUD$2,500,000. Nickel mineralization exists on the project at the Dikoloti and Lentswe prospects. Snowden Mining Industry Consultants have completed a resource estimate of the Dikoloti nickel deposit reporting that the mineral resource is 1,2 million tonnes @ 0,84% nickel and 0,46% copper at a nickel cut-off grade of 0,5% and has been classified in the Inferred category according to the 1999 JORC Code. The company announced in February, 2007 commencement of a drilling program to test ten newly identified conductors at the company's Lentswe and Dikoloti prospects.
- Botswana Metals Ltd, a 100% subsidiary of A-Cap Resources Ltd, control 4500 square kilometres of exploration tenements for nickel and copper between the nickel mines of Selebi Phikwe to the south and Tati to the north. Previous exploration has suggested potentially targets for follow-up drilling.
The Musongati Ni laterite deposit overlies the 1275 Ma (1.275 billion year old) Mesoproterozoic Mukanda-Buhoro-Musongati layered igneous complex. This complex is one of a number of ultrabasic complexes that were emplaced en-echelon within a 350 km long by 20 to 40 km-wide northeast trending corridor that extends from Burundi into Tanzania. Three nickel laterite deposits are known in Burundi: Musongati, Nyabikere and Waga. Within this corridor is the Kabanga nickel sulphide deposit in Tanzania. Although disseminated, nickel and copper sulphides have been described from rocks underlying the Musongati laterite, the Ni and Cu metal concentrations, found to date, are not significant economically. The Musongati laterites are derived from the weathering of the ultrabasic complex, particularly, serpentinised dunite with a primary nickel content of about 0.3%. Two types of ore are present in approximately equal proportions: limonite and saprolite. Nickel in the limonite ore type is tied to goethite whereas in the saprolite ore type it is related to serpentine group minerals (chrysotile, antigorite) and clay minerals (pimelite and nontronite). The typical weathering profile consists of lateritic soil, canga or cuirasse (iron caprock), limonite zone (averaging 15 m thick), saprolite zone (averaging 12 m thick) and ultrabasic bedrock.
- Argosy Minerals Inc (Australian, ) has title to the Musongati laterite Ni project situated in central Burundi, some 85 km east-southeast of Bujumbura. The indicated resource, based on previous exploration, is 28,659,000 t at grade of 1,62% Ni or 464,000 t nickel (0,8% Ni cut-off)
- Dwyka Diamonds Ltd (Australian) bought the Muremera nickel project in Burundi in an all-share transaction. The price tag on Muremera was a maximum $5m, with an upfront payment of $2m in Dwyka shares. The remaining $3m, also payable in shares is subject to project milestones. Dwyka subsequently announced that BHP Billiton will invest $5,2 million as exploration expenditure in the project, to earn up to 50% interest in Dwyka unit Danyland Ltd, which holds the exploration rights for nickel and associated minerals at Muremera. The Muremera target area is located within 2 km from the Xstrata/Barrick Kabanga Project in Tanzania, one of the largest known undeveloped nickel sulphide deposits in Africa. The second phase of the drilling at the Muremera Nickel Project in Burundi had started, the company said in January, 2008. Four drillholes had been completed on the Muremera B anomaly, which is considered prospective due to a superposition of both strong electromagnetic and magnetic anomalies. Up to 10,000 metres of drilling was expected in 2008.
- Geovic Mining Corporation announced that its 60%-owned subsidiary, Geovic Cameroon (GeoCam), planned to resume test pitting in February 2007 and drilling in March 2007 at its cobalt-nickel project in Cameroon. The overall program included 600 shallow drill-holes and test-pits targeted to increase mineral resources and mineral reserves at its Nkamouna and Mada deposits, in Cameroon. The Nkamouna project, the first of seven deposits being developed, contains 26,3 million tons of proven ore reserves and 26,4 million tons of probable ore reserves at average grades of 0,24% cobalt, 0,72% nickel and 1,22% manganese. The project will have the capacity to produce 4 000 t cobalt plus 3 000 t of nickel during the first year of production. The project life is 21 years and GeoCam intends to improve and expand the Nkamouna project infrastructure in the last half of 2007 and start major construction in April 2008. Production is scheduled to start in mid-2009. Geovic Cameroon received a feasibility study on the Nkamouna cobalt/nickel project which indicated that yearly cobalt production could be increased by 26% to 9,2-million pounds and nickel production by 17% to seven-million pounds, it said in December, 2007. The project includes a shallow openpit mine, ore concentration facilities and a 2 000-t/d processing plant. Geovic explained that the feasibility study capital cost estimates provided for a 33% higher production rate, increased costs for equipment, material, fuel, supplies, labour and transportation, and the effects of a significant decline in the value of the US dollar since 2005.
- Mega Uranium Ltd (MGA.T) explored the Mt Kakoulima Cu-Ni-Co-PGM Property in Guinea. The project, located 35-50 km northeast of Conakry, the capital and principal port of Guinea, comprises two contiguous exploration licences (total 298 km2), covering a 30 km strike length of the northern and southern margins of the mafic/ultramafic Kaloum Igneous Complex (KIC). Between 1996 and 2001, previous explorers Semafo/Afcan and Rio Tinto intersected several narrow high grade Ni-Cu-Co-PGM sulphide intervals within a gabbro-pyroxenite unit in the upper part of the KIC. In 2005, drilling continued to intersect sulphide disseminations and blebs in the immediate vicinity of the basal contact within pyroxenite/gabbro plus transitional and brecciated lithologies. Overall, in 2004 and 2005, a total of 9303,5 m was drilled in 23 diamond core holes, 16 on the northern contact zone and 5 in the southern area. Drilling results included 14,7 m @ 0,35% Ni, 0,39% Cu, 0,17 g/t Pt and 0,79 g/t Pd, and maximum values over one metre intervals of 0,45% Ni and 0,47% Cu.
- Dynatec Corporation (Canadian, DY.TO) announced on October 30, 2006, the signing of a shareholders agreement for the Ambatovy Nickel Project. Under the agreement, Dynatec has been appointed project operator and will retain a 40% ownership interest. A 27,5% interest in the Project will be held by each of Sumitomo Corporation and Korea Resources Corporation (leading a consortium of Korean enterprises including Daewoo International Corporation, Keangnam Enterprises Ltd. and STX Corporation). SNC-Lavalin Inc. has agreed to acquire a 5% interest in Ambatovy coincident with the closing of the project debt financing. Dynatec will receive US$852 million of financial support from its partners, positioning it to fund its equity requirements for the Project and to meet a significant portion of its guarantee obligations for project debt financing. Ambatovy is among the largest nickel projects under development in the world, with annual design capacity of 60,000 tonnes of nickel and 5,600 tonnes of cobalt. It is anticipated that Ambatovy will be placed near the bottom of the industry cost curve based on expected low nickel production costs. The Ambatovy Project is based on mining two ore bodies that are about three kilometres apart. The Ambatovy and Analamay deposits are both laterite nickel deposits formed by the leaching of the ultramafic portion of a large intrusive complex. The deposits cover an area of about 1300 hectares, with a thickness from 20 to 100 metres (average thickness is approximately 40 metres). More than ninety percent of the deposit is classified as ferralite, some of which is underlain by saprolite. A material type termed low magnesium saprolite (LMS) lies below the ferralite and between the ferralite and saprolite, where the latter is present. Only the ferralite and LMS have been considered in the mine plan. The distribution of the saprolite is erratic; consequently it has been classified as inferred, and is not included in the measured and indicated resource, although its exploitation may prove to be economic. Exploration on the property has occurred in four campaigns: Bureau des Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) in 1962; GENiM, a mining consortium comprising Anglo-American, Société le Nickel, Ugine Kuhlmann, and BRGM in the early 1970s; Phelps Dodge in the mid-1990s; and Dynatec in 2003 and 2004. A total of 1282 diamond drill holes have been drilled representing approximately 55 000 metres of drilling. In addition, sample pits have been dug and appropriate surface mapping completed. Proven and probable mineral reserves are estimated at 125,0 million tonnes at an average grade of 1,04% nickel and 0,099% cobalt; additional low grade ore is estimated at 39,4 million tonnes at a grade of 0,69% nickel and 0,064% cobalt; this low grade ore is scheduled to be stockpiled then reclaimed and processed at the end of the mine life; average ore grade over the first 10 years of the mine plan is estimated at 1,12% nickel and 0,101% cobalt; the mine life is estimated to be 20,5 years, plus 6,5 years of stockpile recovery, giving a total production plan of 27 years; total recoverable metal over the production plan is estimated at 1,34 million tonnes of nickel and 122 000 tonnes of cobalt. Sherritt International Corporation and Dynatec Corporation jointly announced a transaction on April 20, 2007, whereby under a Plan of Arrangement Sherritt will acquire all of the issued and outstanding common shares of Dynatec for a total value of C$1.6 billion.
- Diamond Fields International Ltd announced on 9 May, 2007, that it had exercised its option to acquire the rights to the Valozoro nickel property in Madagascar and owned 100% of these exploration rights which are valid until May 2011. The Valozoro nickel deposit is located 60 kilometres north of the town of Fianarantsoa in south central Madagascar and is reported in the Catalogue des Principaux Gites Mineraux de Madagascar (Catalogue of Principal Mineral Deposits of Madagascar). During 1956 and 1957, UGINE completed an extensive prospecting program and reported an estimated resource of 3.7 million tons of lateritic ore (derived from an altered peridotite host) grading 1,75% nickel containing 65,000 tonnes of contained nickel metal.
- Jubilee Platinum plc reported encouraging results in October, 2007, from the most recent borehole drilled on the Antsahabe prospect, in the northern area of its Londokomanana property, in Madagascar. The borehole intersected 32 m of continuous nickel-copper and sulphide mineralization at a shallow 30 m depth from the surface. The Londokomanana project is a joint venture with TransAsia Minerals Limited, which has the right to earn in 51% of the project, by spending $7-million.
- Albidon Ltd has been exploring the Mpemba (Hill) Nickel Project, located in southern Malawi, about 20 km to the southwest of the city of Blantyre. The project area is underlain by mafic intrusive rocks that contain disseminations and clots of nickel sulphides at many localities, in addition to a nickel and copper soil geochemical anomaly that extends over an area greater than 3 sq km. There are historical reports of rock samples yielding assay results of up to 2,9% Ni and 2,7g/t Pt, along strike to the northwest.
- Lisungwe plc is exploring nickel mineralization associated with ferrochrome/magnetite at Chimimbe and Chimwadzulu in southern Malawi.
- Zambezi Nickel Ltd is exploring the Mavita Project comprising two prospecting licences, LPP 1045 and LPP 1046, located in the Manica province of central western Mozambique. The geological setting of the Mavita Project area places it within the eastward extension of the Archaean Zimbabwean Craton and includes several areas of significant aeromagnetic and stream sediment geochemical nickel anomalies, coincident with mapped ultramafic lithologies. None of these anomalies have been drill tested to date.
Anglo Platinum produces around 30,000 tonnes of nickel per year as a by-product from its platinum mining operations and Impala Platinum 14,000 tonnes.
GeologyThe Uitkomst complex (Nkomati nickel mine) comprises three disseminated sulphide mineralized zones, namely the Basal Mineralized Zone (BMZ), Main Mineralized Zone (MMZ) and the Chromititic Pyroxenite Mineralized Zone (PCMZ). At the base of the Uitkomst complex, another sulphide orebody, Massive Sulphide Body (MSB), occurs.
- LionOre Mining International Ltd (Canadian, LIM.TO, LMGGF.PK) operates the Nkomati nickel mine situated in the Mpumalanga province in the northeast of South Africa, some 300 km east of Johannesburg. African Rainbow Minerals Limited (ARM) has a 50% interest. Nkomati Nickel comprises the producing Nkomati massive sulphide body (MSB) nickel mine, a lower-grade disseminated orebody and a chrome operation. The operating MSB mine is one of the lowest cash cost nickel mines in the world. The MSB currently produces 4,500 to 5,000 tonnes of nickel annually, with significant by-products including copper (2,800 tonnes), palladium (22,000 ounces) and platinum (7,000 ounces). ( In 2005, Nkomati produced 5,291 tonnes of nickel as well as 3,260 tonnes of copper and 97 tonnes of cobalt.) The operation is expected to continue at current production levels until early 2008. The interim expansion project will maintain production and bridge the gap between the depletion of the MSB (due in early 2008) and the proposed major expansion projects, planned to start construction in 2009 with full production forecast in 2012.The interim expansion project anticipates mining the disseminated Main Mineralized Zone (MMZ) orebody with commissioning planned for September 2007 and full production, at an annualized rate of 5,000 tonnes of payable nickel, expected by the end of 2007. The current project life is approximately 10 years unless incorporated into the Phase 2 Expansion. Nkomati's low grade disseminated orebody offers significant expansion potential. The expansion projects are targeting approximately 20,00 t per annum of nickel with a life of mine to beyond 2020. Expansion capital would be split equally between LionOre and ARM. A feasibility study is currently underway and is due for completion mid-2007. LionOre and ARM are also building a 20,000 to 25,000 tonnes/year smelting and refining facility for their Nkomati nickel development using Activox, a type of hydrometallurgy that is much cheaper than conventional smelting technology and able to treat low grade concentrate. MMC Norilsk Nickel , on 3 May 2007, offered to buy LionOre Mining International Ltd for about $5.3-billion, topping a competing bid from Xstrata plc. Norilsk offered $21.50 in cash per LionOre share, more than the $18.50-a-share bid Xstrata offered in March 2007. On May 23, 2007, increased an offer for LionOre Mining International Ltd. by 28 percent to C$6.8 billion ($6.3 billion), trumping an improved bid from Xstrata Plc. Norilsk bid C$27.50 a share, up from the C$21.50 it proposed. Norilsk Nickel announced plans in September, 2007, to invest $830 million in its African production assets over the next three years in order to double its nickel output on the continent. The Russian-based company also said that it will invest $445 million together with joint venture partner African Rainbow Minerals Limited (ARM) in the Nkomati nickel mine that the two companies operate together.
This investment will increase average annual nickel production to 20,500 tonnes from 5,500 tonnes and extend the life of mine by 18 years to 2027, the company said.
GeologyThe Kabanga deposits are hosted in small mafic-ultramafic intrusives that are part of the Meso-Proterozoic Kibaran Orogenic Belt of Central Africa. Mineralization comprises pentlandite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite ranging from net textured to massive sulphide. The Luwumbu area contains a number of mafic and ultramafic intrusions in a zone that is at least 160km in length. This area of Southwest Tanzania has the most extensive outcrop of rocks interpreted to form part of the same geological province as the host rocks to the Kabanga nickel deposits in the northwest of the country. The Kabanga nickel deposit was discovered by the United Nations during the 1970s following a comprehensive geochemical and geophysical program that identified a chain of coincident airborne magnetic and geochemical anomalies within a 20-30 kilometre wide northeasterly trending belt that extends for over 200 kilometres from Burundi in the south, through western Tanzania, to Uganda in the north.
- In 2005, Falconbridge acquired a 50% indirect interest in the Kabanga nickel project in Tanzania from Barrick, which retains the remainder. Falconbridge is the operator of the joint venture. The project is located in northwestern Tanzania, south of Lake Victoria and near the Burundi and Rwanda borders. The current estimated inferred resource is 26,4 million tonnes grading 2,6% nickel based on estimates released by Barrick (February 2003). Xstrata Nickel, a subisidiary of the London-listed mining firm, said in February, 2007, it would spend $95m completing a prefeasbility study of Kabanga nickel. Xstrata also said Kabanga had an estimated indicated resource of 9,7 million tonnes of nickel grading at 2,37% nickel and a total estimated inferred resource of 36,3 million tonnes grading 2,8% nickel.
- Castillian Resources Corporation has acquired a 100% interest in four properties in the Kagera Belt, Tanzania. The key claims are approximately 10 km northeast of the Kabanga nickel deposits of Xstrata/Barrick. Mapping indicates a 20 km long belt of prospective mafic and ultramafic rocks on trend with the Kabanga deposits.
- Albidon Ltd is involved in the the Luwumbu Project, situated in the Livingstone Mountains of southwestern Tanzania, which is owned 90% by Goldstream Mining NL and 10% by Albidon. In June 2003 an agreement was signed whereby Lonmin plc may earn a 70% interest in the project by sole funding a Feasibility Study on an Indicated Mineral Resource. The Songea Project comprises five Prospecting Licences in SW Tanzania covering an area of 4,093 sq km, and is part of the Albidon-BHP Billiton Africa Exploration Cooperation Agreement. Published geological maps indicate that rocks in the Songea Project are similar to those on the Luwumbu Project, along strike to the north, where significant platinum mineralization has been identified.
- Goldstream Mining NL is exploring the Nachingwea Project (Goldstream 100%) which consists of four granted tenements totaling 7,300 square kilometers, located in south eastern Tanzania. Follow up of historic drainage anomalies has located two ultramafic trends. Orientation soil sampling over the ‘Nditi’ pyroxenite returned highly anomalous values of 6,932ppm Cu, 7,760ppm Ni and 1,2g/t PGE. The body appears to extend over 5 by 2 km. The company has announced announced plans to divest its Nachingwea nickel-copper project in a $12 million to $17 million initial public offer on the Toronto Stock Exchange. The ASX listed Goldstream will spin-off its Continental Nickel Ltd subsidiary, but will maintain a 51 per cent stake in the company, as well as a 25 per cent free carry through to the completion of a feasibility study or until CNI incurs a minimum level of expenditure. Continental will also have the right to acquire further nickel projects, with at least $8.6 million in IPO proceeds being committed to proposed exploration of the site.
- Tanzanian Royalty Exploration Corporation holds seven prospecting licenses representing a combined area of4,434 square kilometers within the Kabanga nickel belt.
- Lithic Metals' Haito Project has identfied nickel mineralization in test pits, soils and rock chips over a large ophiolite complex.
- Vangold Resources Ltd (Canadian, VNGRF.PK, VAN.V) has has 287 sq km in the Kafunzo area which is located on the Tanzania border, north of the Kabanga nickel/cobalt deposit and is investigating a promising aeromagnetic anomaly.
- Albidon Ltd has been exploring the Munali Nickel Project, located 60 kilometres south of Lusaka , the capital of Zambia. The Enterprise nickel deposit at Munali contains resources (as announced on 31 May 2006) of 8,0 million t at 1,4% Ni and 0,9 g/t PGM containing 109,000t of Ni and 223,000 oz of PGM (at a 0,7% Ni cutoff) of which 6,9 million t t at 1,4% Ni is classified as Indicated Mineral Resource.The project is designed to produce approximately 8,500 tonnes per annum of nickel in concentrate from a 900,000 t per annum underground mining operation. In addition to the resource drilling at Enterprise , a systematic approach to drilling of the Munali Intrusion has been adopted. This had success with the discovery of the Voyager prospect approximately 750m north of Enterprise. The geological setting of the mineralization intersected along the southwestern side of the Munali Intrusion is consistent, with the same controls on nickel sulphides over the entire length of the intrusion (over 2,5km). On 8 December 2006, Jinchuan , China's largest nickel refiner, said it had agreed to invest about $100m in the Munali Nickel project and has signed an off-take agreement for the nickel produced from Munali.
- Zambezi Nickel Ltd is exploring the Mitaba Hill, Mitaba Hill East, Mitaba West and Paulwi prospects, previously explored, trenched and drilled by Zamanglo in the 1960’s. The Mitaba project occupies a total strike length of 11 kilometres, within which occur at least two main complexes of successive ultramafic komatiite lava flows, 3,3 kilometres apart. The pear-shaped Paulwi intrusion is interpreted to have been gravity-differentiate into a gabbroic upper portion of 3,000 metres depth and basal serpentinised dunite portion of 2,000 metres depth. Zambezi Nickel has changed its name to Lithic Metals & Energy, the firm said on 26 September, 2007. The Aim stock exchange trading code will change from ZNI to LMY effective immediately. “The change of name reflects the diversification of Lithic Metals & Energy into the mineral energy sector and underscores the aspirations of the board of directors and myself to develop the company into a major mining house,” MD Jim Kerr said in a statement.
- Mwana Africa plc acquired a controlling stake in Bindura Nickel Corporation from Anglo American Corporation of Zimbabwe in July 2003. Bindura is listed on the Zimbabwean Stock Exchange. Bindura operates two nickel mines: Shangani which is 100 km from Bulawayo on the Harare road and Trojan which is near the town of Bindura, about 100km north east of Harare. Both mines produce concentrates which are processed at the smelter and refinery at Bindura. Bindura produces about 11,000 tonnes of refined nickel per annum of which about 7,000 tonnes are own production and the balance is toll material from Botswana and South Africa. The mine lives at Shangani and Trojan are currently estimated to be approximately four years and nine years respectively (52,440 t proved and probable reserve and 210,950 t measured, indicated and inferred resources.) The Trojan shaft is currently being deepened by some 600 metres to access new reserves which are open at depth, which potentially will extend the life of the mine for up to 10 further years. The Shangani mine is open at depth to a limited extent and a study is currently underway to determine how best to extend the shaft system to access its additional resources. Bindura has also completed a feasibility study on the Hunters Road claim, between Kwekwe and Gweru, which will extend the mine's lifespan to 2022. Hunters Road has up to 30 million tonnes of ore.